Realworld Testing w/ High Speed Video

Inspired by Mythbusters, we wanted to use a high speed camera to really measure what's happening with millisecond resolution. We were disappointed when we first looked into this, as "real" high speed cameras cost in excess of 10k USD. But then we stumbled upon the Casio Exilim EX-F1 and it's horrific quality but hugely fast video capability (actually, quality isn't that bad in VERY high light situations). At 1200 frames per second, we get video output at a resolution of 336x96, which is freaking tiny. But it's enough. All we need to do is count the frames between two events and multiply it by 0.833 (the number of milliseconds per frame) and we can assess the duration of incredibly short term events.

First up, we're looking at response time for the Dell 3007WFP display. Rather than relying on the manufacturer reported response time (which look at a limited number of cases and likely don't include worst case performance), we're using our camera to watch a few frames go by and observe how long it takes for pixels to transition from one color to the next. As we can see in the video, it takes nearly a full frame (~16ms) for some colors to change (pay attention to the yellow and black stripes with the orange lettering at the bottom of the screen). We timescaled this video down 10x over the already very slow 2.5% realtime speed to 0.25% realtime to help in seeing what's going on.

Getting to the actual game testing, we wanted to look at two titles: one a twitch shooter, and another with notoriously bad input lag. We chose Team Fortress 2 for our twitch shooter and Fallout 3 for our laggy game. We also did further testing on a CRT with TF2 just to see how low we could actually get input latency (with some pretty impressive results). Our test methodology was to set up the camera to capture both input generation (either a mouse click or move) and the display. The resolution of our camera was such that we had to really work to cram everything in the frame, but we got enough to be useful. We ran multiple tests and counted frames between when the hand hit the mouse and when we could see the result on the monitor.

For Team Fortress 2 we looked at three scenarios: no vsync, vsync enabled, and vsync enabled with our flip queue (render ahead / pre-rendered frames) set to zero. Our frametime at 2560x1600 was typically 9ms give or take small amount (but we never dropped below 100 FPS let alone refresh rate) with our GTX 280 remaining the performance bottleneck (CPU time was still significantly less than frametime).

First we'll look at the case with no vsync. Look for when the finger stops moving to when the shotgun blast appears on the wall (Valve makes sure to calculate the hit before it even starts the gun firing animation; sometimes hit and gun fire happen in the same frame, sometimes they are one frame separated). This certainly isn't frame by frame, but you should be able to download the clip from youtube and step through it yourself if you are so inclined.

This test took about 45 frames: between 37ms and 38ms from input generation to display. This is very good considering what we predicted as a best case. Average over multiple runs was a little higher, resulting in 51ms of typical input lag plus or minus about 12ms (our maximum being 63ms). This fluctuation is due to how all the factors we talked about either line up or don't.

When we turn on vsync, we see a lot more delay.

We can see even better how the hit happens before the gunfire animation again. This is very key in any twitch shooter. The lag is significantly longer with vsync enabled. This example shows about 94 or 95 frames (~79ms) input lag, which was our lowest input lag time in this test. Our average was about 89ms ranging up to 96ms at maximum. In this case, we lose the input latency advantage of no vsync but we gain more consistent input lag times and no tearing.

But we also decided to check and make sure that we weren't getting stuck with any penalties due to flip queuing as the average latency increase seemed a little high. So we set maximum pre-rendered frames to zero in the NVIDIA control panel (formerly maximum render ahead) to see what happened. Whenever your framerate is always higher than your refresh rate you never want any flip queueing going on (unless you are using a multiGPU configuration). So let's check it out.

And we see 70ms as our new best. Our worst case is 85ms, which is better than our previous average. Average latency here is 76ms +/- about 6ms (with the one 85ms exception). From this data, it seems as though Valve uses a 1 frame flip queue (1 frame render ahead) when vsync is enabled unless it is forced off in the driver. When the game has framerates of less than the refresh rate then this is fine, but when framerate is always higher than refresh it will absolutely incur a performance penalty along the lines of what we are seeing here.

For those who want vsync in TF2 and have consistently >60fps performance without multiGPU, absolutely set the flip queue to zero in the driver.

Next up is our Fallout 3 test and we'll compare a notoriously laggy game with a notoriously responsive game. Our framerate in this game was consistently between 38 and 45 frames per second during the testing, meaning that frametime will play a bigger role as it will add at something between 22ms and 27ms of latency.

And we have 136ms. And this test was much more consistent with our average latency being 136ms as well. Our low was 130ms and our high was 142ms, giving us the same tight spread of +/- 6ms we saw with TF2 and vsync, only vsync was not enabled here (which suggests some internal rate monitoring to me). Of course, this variability is now a much lower percentage of the overall input lag; not that that offers much consolation.

The number of complaints we've seen on the net about Fallout 3 and input lag (though notably a subjective improvement over Oblivion) combined with our own experience lead us to believe that somewhere between TF2's snappy 89ms worst case input latency (which we still couldn't feel) and Fallout 3's ~50% longer latency we cross the point of perceptibility and distraction. That 100ms number certainly looks like a good point for developers to keep input latency below.

Let's take a look at what happens when we turn on vsync.

Once again, 136ms. Our input lag stats were actually the same. And yes we rechecked to make sure vsync was enabled here and disabled there. Since Oblivion benefited from reducing the maximum number of frames rendered ahead, we tested this out as well. When set to 1 or 0 we saw no change in performance with Fallout 3 at least in this test. It's unclear whether different settings or performance levels would benefit, but for now it seems like Fallout 3 does really well at producing a consistently high input lag.

So that does it for our LCD testing. But we did want to learn whether or not the LCD panel added any extra delay over a CRT display. So we pulled out a Sony GDM F-500 encased in the purple and grey of a Sun monitor from an age gone by. We tested at lower resolutions as the display couldn't muster anything closer to 2560x1600, but at 1600x1200@60Hz our numbers still made sense comparatively: we would expect them to be a little lower but not by much.

So, our average here is about 43ms, which is a lower average than on the Dell LCD. Our minimum is 35ms and max is 52ms. In the best case, 35ms (for the CRT) isn't much better than 37ms (for the LCD) at all. Our worst case in this test was much better (as was our average) than the LCD. But it's clear that the LCD is capable of input latency as low as the test with this CRT. We could (and likely do) have an advantage on the CRT side due to resolution. We do have to consider that framerate was higher for the CRT test. It is likely that this difference reduced our worst case and average performance.

But let's take a look at the CRT with vsync.

In this test our best case is 78ms and worst case is 88ms. The average is 84ms. This is, again, very similar in worst case to the LCD test, but the average case is less better this time around. This makes sense as vsync normalizes performance to 60FPS but there may still be a slight advantage for the lower resolution. It seems as if the Dell 3007WFP isn't significantly disadvantaged when compared to a CRT.

But there is one more advantage over LCD panels: refresh rate. We tested 120Hz, though we did have to lower resolution once more to make it work. This will increase performance on its own, but the results are impressive.

With an average of 25ms input latency, minimum of 17ms and maximum of 29ms, the results here show an incredible impact on input latency when running at a higher framerate and refresh rate. These numbers come in really low. The 1152x864 resolution does provide about 200 FPS which will also have an impact on latency, but the fact that 1600x1200 had a higher framerate than 2560x1600 but showed similar latencies, we suspect that the limit was refresh rate. Although it could be that the higher refresh rate was able to allow the advantages of the higher framerate to shine through.

Either way, this is incredibly low input lag.

Scanout and the Display Combating Input Lag and Final Words
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  • psilencer - Tuesday, August 18, 2009 - link

    First time poster, so be gentle!

    For each of the cases you analyze the bandwidth and take the lag to be the inverse of the bandwidth. This is incorrect. Lag and bandwidth not related as such. Consider a road with a constant speed limit. Lag would be related to the length of the road (the time it takes for some signal starting at A to reach it's destination B). Bandwidth is related to number of lanes (how many signals you can send from A to B within some time). Although there is some relationship between the two, it is not the inverse.

    With this in mind, everything analyzed by this article is incorrect.

    Consider a mouse that has 500 reports/second. Taking the inverse gives 2ms, which is the average time between completed reports. However, you don't consider that multiple "reports" may be pipelined in the mouse. Say for example, your mouse has a camera, some simple processing logic to decipher the data from the camera, and then the usb interface. For simplicity, assume that these units process one and only report at a time (and bandwidth/latency would have the inverse relationship). In that case, each section works at 500 reports/second, and would have a latency of 2ms. However the total latency of the mouse would be at 6ms, since each report needs to go through each section.

    This also applies to the CPU and GPU.

    Sorry, if I'm completely wrong, just ignore this =P

  • siberx - Thursday, July 30, 2009 - link

    Fantastic article - I smile each time AnandTech posts one of these groundbreaking articles that just cuts straight through the BS and gets to the truth behind issues that have been muddled in hearsay and rumours for years.

    I am personally particularly sensitive to input lag, and with my current LCD even in a fast game like TF2 or UT I find the lag intolerable if vsync is enabled - I have to run with it disabled in just about any game demanding fast response.

    My question, however, is the effect that multi-gpu solutions have on input lag. I have never seen something describing exactly how both ATI and nVidia's multi-gpu solutions affect lag, as well as how different multi-gpu rendering modes (AFR, SFR, etc...) affect lag. I would assume that using a multi-gpu solution would, in most cases incur at least an extra frame of delay to mix or move frames between cards, etc... but an actual analysis of this would be very useful. It may, in fact, be worthwhile to disable multi-gpu when running an older twitch game to improve latency...

    Additionally, testing with a couple other LCDs to see how they compare latency-wise would be interesting - I get the feeling your Dell panel is a fair step faster than your standard-issue modern panel doing overdriving to reduce switching times...
  • race2 - Saturday, August 1, 2009 - link

    When you say that all non-Nvidia driver Triple Buffering for OpenGL programs are simply one frame flip queues, do you mean that D3DOverrider's forced Triple Buffering is a one frame flip queue as well?
  • race2 - Saturday, August 1, 2009 - link

    Sorry, first time posting here. Previous comment was not meant to be a reply.
  • arcsign - Sunday, July 26, 2009 - link

    It's nice to know that the whole input lag issue is finally getting some attention. I've been trying to find ways to improve it, without buying new hardware, for a little while now, and came across some options that might be of interest for future articles. (I don't have access to much in terms of equipment to measure these things, so my testing hasn't been so much empirical as it has "well, that seems a bit better... maybe.")

    -- The two that stick out in my mind as far as software options go are (at least for WinXP) the boot.ini options "/INTAFFINITY," and "/TIMERES= xxxxx." The former assigns all interrupts to the highest numbered core, and the latter changes the resolution of the Windows kernel timer.

    -- It would also be interesting to see what sort of effects overclocking might have on various latencies, as I've noticed that Windows doesn't always agree with the BIOS/CPU-Z as to the processor's speed, and in cases where a game uses Windows Performance Counters to calculate time deltas for networking/inputs/etc, if there are any counters that depend on an accurate cpu speed, this could present a problem. (Although this isn't directly related to input lag, it is related to the interaction between the game and the player...)

    -- AHCI multimedia timers versus TSC's (more of an issue in XP than more recent OS's, as I believe Vista and 7 both require the use of the AHCI timers) may also have a significant effect on gameplay.

    Anyways, nice article, and keep up the good work.
  • William Gaatjes - Saturday, July 25, 2009 - link

    Hello, you might find something interesting on the website of Avago .

    Avago technologies manufactures optical mouse chips.
    Another manufacturer is SGS thomson or st electronics.

    Here is a link to avago chips.">

    You might find some information you seek there.

    I noticed you where writing about 3 keynumbers but you mention 4 on the page : "Reflexes and Input Generation".
  • William Gaatjes - Saturday, July 25, 2009 - link

    And a very nice article i forgot to add.

  • camylarde - Tuesday, July 21, 2009 - link

    Now all that remains is to incorporate a multiplayer fps game and dissect how network comunication affects it, and how that knowledge can be used to clearly select wallhackers and aimbotters from the regular pack, just by watching a demo of them, and doing basic math counts of their reported network lag.
  • DerekWilson - Monday, July 20, 2009 - link

    This is something we would love to do, and while it is on the table we may not have the time in the near term to get something like that up right now.

    But trust me, we've been thinking of many cool ways to use high speed footage :-)
  • JimboMahoney - Monday, July 20, 2009 - link

    I also found Fallout 3 extremely laggy until I edited the Fallout.ini file from this


    to this:


    (Thanks to for this tip).

    It seems that Fallout 3 has VSync enabled at all times, even if you disable it in the menu, unless you make this change. The game was pretty unpleasant to play before I did this (I never use VSync).

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