With the latest I/O conference, Google has finally publicly announced its plans for its new runtime on Android. The Android RunTime, ART, is the successor and replacement for Dalvik, the virtual machine on which Android Java code is executed on. We’ve had traces and previews of it available with KitKat devices since last fall, but there wasn’t much information in terms of technical details and the direction Google was heading with it.

Contrary to other mobile platforms such as iOS, Windows or Tizen, which run software compiled natively to their specific hardware architecture, the majority of Android software is based around a generic code language which is transformed from “byte-code” into native instructions for the hardware on the device itself.

Over the years and from the earliest Android versions, Dalvik started as a simple VM with little complexity. With time, however, Google felt the need to address performance concerns and to be able to keep up with hardware advances of the industry. Google eventually added a JIT-compiler to Dalvik with Android’s 2.2 release, added multi-threading capabilities, and generally tried to improve piece by piece.

However, lately over the last few years the ecosystem had been outpacing Dalvik development, so Google sought to build something new to serve as a solid foundation for the future, where it could scale with the performance of today’s and the future’s 8-core devices, large storage capabilities, and large working memories.

Thus ART was born.


First, ART is designed to be fully compatible with Dalvik’s existing byte-code format, “dex” (Dalvik executable). As such, from a developer’s perspective, there are no changes at all in terms of having to write applications for one or the other runtime and no need to worry about compatibilities.

The big paradigm-shift that ART brings, is that instead of being a Just-in-Time (JIT) compiler, it now compiles application code Ahead-of-Time (AOT). The runtime goes from having to compile from bytecode to native code each time you run an application, to having it to do it only once, and any subsequent execution from that point forward is done from the existing compiled native code.

Of course, these native translations of the applications take up space, and this new methodology is something that has been made possible today only due to the vast increases in available storage space on today’s devices, a big shift from the early beginnings of Android devices.

This shift opens up a large amount of optimizations which were not possible in the past; because code is optimized and compiled only once, it is worth to optimize it really well that one time. Google claims that it now is able to achieve higher level optimizations over the whole of an applications code-base, as the compiler has an overview of the totality of the code, as opposed to the current JIT compiler which only does optimizations in local/method chunks. Overhead such as exception checks in code are largely removed, and method and interface calls are vastly sped up. The process which does this is the new “dex2oat” component, replacing the “dexopt” Dalvik equivalent. Odex files (optimized dex) also disappear in ART, replaced by ELF files.

Because ART compiles an ELF executable, the kernel is now able to handle page handling of code pages - this results in possibly much better memory management, and less memory usage too. I’m curious what the effect of KSM (Kernel same-page merging) has on ART, it’s definitely something to keep an eye on.

The implications to battery life are also significant - since there is no more interpretation or JIT-work to be done during the runtime of an app, that results in direct savings of CPU cycles, and thus, power consumption.

The only downside to all of this, is that this one-time compilation takes more time to complete. A device’s first boot, and an application’s first start-up will be much increased compared to an equivalent Dalvik system. Google claims that this is not too dramatic, as they expect the finished shipping runtime to be equivalent or even faster than Dalvik in these aspects.

The performance gains over Dalvik are significant, as pictured above; the gains are roughly a 2x improvement in speed for code running on the VM. Google claimed that applications such as Chessbench that represent an almost 3x increase are a more representative projection of real-world gains that can be expected once the final release of Android L is made available.

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  • phoenix_rizzen - Wednesday, July 2, 2014 - link

    On current Android devices, when you switch the runtime to ART, you get the "Android is upgrading; X of Y" progress bar on first boot. I'm sure once the L release is finalised, it will have a similar UI.

    What's perplexing is why this isn't currently in place on the Dev Preview.
  • tacitust - Thursday, July 3, 2014 - link

    It was probably not high enough on the priority list. Stability comes first, even for previews.
  • NetMage - Tuesday, July 8, 2014 - link

    So, never released then? :)
  • darwinosx - Thursday, July 3, 2014 - link

    They can't and even if they could Apple has nothing to worry about.
  • Alexey291 - Sunday, July 6, 2014 - link

    you're really mad ain't ya :)
  • sprockkets - Tuesday, July 8, 2014 - link

    He's our favorite apple troll. In reality he probably can't even afford to buy an apple ipod, so his mom got one for him.
  • Alexey291 - Wednesday, July 9, 2014 - link

    yup but his arguments are so inane... its almost as if he's paid to do this...
  • Impulses - Wednesday, July 2, 2014 - link

    Seems the rumor is the old Nexus 7 might not see L... It'll be over two years old by the time L arrives officially, and being based on an old Tegra perform that not much else is using anymore it's chances are probably on the low side. I think ART was never enabled as a dev option under KK for it either but don't hold me to that, you can check yourself tho (I've got a 2013, gave my sister a 2012 as a gift tho).
  • uhuznaa - Wednesday, July 2, 2014 - link

    Google has just released the L-sources for the Nexus 7 2012.

    Good update, although I find it interesting that all of a sudden Android after all WAS not as smooth as iOS (which it indeed never was, really).

    What I'm still missing (and I hope L will address this at some point) are more privacy controls. If (stock) Android grows a way to manage permissions after an app is installed I would be very glad.
  • nathanddrews - Wednesday, July 2, 2014 - link

    Yeah, I thought "butter" took care of that.

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