Intro

We've asked Francois Simond (supercurio), creator of the very popular project-voodoo and voodoo-sound  improvement packages, and Android hacker focused on sound, video, and image, to set the record straight on Samsung Galaxy S 2's sound quality. In addition, Francois will help us test smartphone and mobile-device sound quality and continue being a contributor as it quickly becomes an important industry focus.

Context

Galaxy S II comes with a lot of expectations in the audio department. Samsung’s previous flagship family, Galaxy S, (aka Vibrant, Captivate, Fascinate, Galaxy S 4G, Epic 4G in the US) set the bar high, using a good quality implementation of Wolfson Micro WM8994 codec. Existing custom mods which tuned WM8994 usage have even been able to push the quality higher than most expected, as well as the headphone output levels.


Yamaha YMU823 - Encircled in Red Above

For the Galaxy S II, however, Samsung changed audio IC suppliers, preferring the popular Japanese brand Yamaha making a big entry in the the low power codec for Smartphones area. The exact chip used in Galaxy S II devices is named C1-YMU823 (also refereed as MC-1N2).

Its datasheet is not public but it’s a chip designed designed to compete with latest Wolfson and TI offerings and probably a custom product designed to follow Samsung requirements.

As the growing interest of readers and recent HTC and Beats by Dre strategic alliance shows, smartphone audio capabilities constantly gain importance. Of course, solid voice call performance remains a major concern. Many smartphone owners now use their device as a primary music player, sometimes with high-end headphones. 

Audio Performance

Music

Demanding enthusiasts expected As music player Galaxy S II to sound at least as good as its Apple competitor: iPhone 4 and supersede its older brother Galaxy S performance.

Unfortunately, it fails at both.

As music player, Galaxy S II performance can be described as:

  • Average for a smartphone.
  • Below average for a high end smartphone.

Yamaha’s MC-1N2 codec has some nice theoretical specs, but the promised sound fidelity turns into a boring rendering affected by several outstanding issues, relegating Samsung flagship far from the audiophile category. Worse: only some of those issues can be remedied by using additional equipment like an attenuator or an active headphone amplifier.

Galaxy S II audio output as music player has issues

Audible CPU and Radio noise

Today most listeners enjoy music with isolating earphones, as they are useful for listening to music or podcasts in loud environments without having to pump the volume up and introduce listening fatigue. Most in-ear gear is highly sensitive. Combined with low impedance and 20dB isolation, hiss and other noise are quickly noticeable.

Galaxy S II is not recommended to drive directly sensitive in-ears because you’ll easily hear the CPU working. Fixing the CPU frequency to its maximum (rooted phones only) doesn’t prevent this annoying noise reminding us of cheap integrated audio codecs a dozen years ago. Admittedly, hiss and noise levels of Galaxy S II headphone output are a lot lower, but today’s standard mobile headphones reveal them easily.

If you’re using sensitive in-ear headphones, radio GSM / EDGE noise is as audible, indicating a probable hardware design flaw of the codec or the board. The culprit is poor EMI shielding.

Description

Galaxysii-cpu-edge-noise-volume1-volume0 by AnandTech

  • 0:00 to 0:02  sound card noise only.
  • 0:02 pop on codec power up, music start to play. EDGE activated, Volume 1/15
  • 0:02 to 0:35 music playing, you can hear GSM and CPU noises despite the signal
  • 0:35 Volume set from 1/15 to 0/15. Music keeps playing in background but is silent
  • 1:03 WiFi enabled, EDGE is automatically disabled. Moving some UI elements

Due to its bursty nature, this flaw is hard to expose in measurements and fortunately less audible with medium sensitivity headphones, not at all with low sensitivity ones.

You can solve this issue by using an attenuator or amplifier: maximizing digital Android output level and adjusting the volume to your need with the amp.

DAC Distortion

With today’s Android audio implementation, all kind of media are sent to the DAC as a 44100 / 16bit / Stereo stream. Despite the usage of a fixed rate, Yamaha’s codec is not able to provide a very clean output.

Galaxy S II DAC output quality is limited by several kind of distortions. So far, no firmware was able to fix those despite early Korean updates describing “audio clarity improvements”.

When playing music, those artifacts are perceived as “lack of clarity”, “reduction of stereo separation”, “loss of detail” and “lifeless sound” (opposite of lively).


From 20 Hz to 20 kHz, dB: -0.42, +0.04
Galaxy S II Frequency response: no load (line in)

Not the best ever but reasonably flat. The slight oscillation in frequency response starting at 1kHz gives a clue about what we’ll see in the next graphs.


Noise Levels
RMS power (A-weighted), dB: -95.1, -95.6
Peak level, dB FS: -71.7, -74.4


Dynamic Range

Dynamic range (A-weighted), dB: +95.4, +95.9

On Noise Levels and Dynamic range graph, I added measurements of Apple iPad and a reference sound card for comparison puposes.

What we see here is good performance. In theory and measured in ideal conditions Galaxy S II has low noise levels and very good dynamic range. However, if noise levels are remarkably low on high frequencies, they increase on lower frequencies which is not something expected nor a good sign as those are more likely to be heard.


Total Harmonic Distortion
THD, %: +0.0036, +0.0035
THD + Noise, %: +0.0390, +0.0388
THD + Noise (A-weighted), %: +0.0425, +0.0424
THD + Noise (A) equivalent: -67.4 dB
Same Graph adding iPad results

THD is calculated by measuring harmonics generated by the electronic circuits when a signal at 1kHz is played. As you can guess by this graph’s shape, there’s an issue here.

In terms of sound and perception, harmonics add colour to the sound; sometimes pleasing like the kind of distortion tube amps add.

This graph show all kind of distortions introduced by Yamaha’s DAC, ie:

  • Jitter-like frequencies distributed around 1kHz
  • All sort of unexpected spikes at higher frequencies

As the noise and other distortions are high, the THD measurement itself becomes kind of irrelevant. Unfortunately the value of  0.0036% is not of the actual performance here.

Other reviews might have use this THD value as base for invalid conclusions.


InterModulation Distortion 
IMD + Noise (A-weighted), %: +0.0655, +0.0655
IMD + Noise (A) equivalent: -63.7dB

What IMD + Noise means needs an explanation: I believe it’s safe to describe it as “all kind of noise and distortions happening when you play a signal” − at the opposite of the signal itself.

IMD + Noise importance is often underrated, like it was useless as we already have another distortion value (THD). Still, it’s often more representative of the general performance and of the sound quality perceived.

No matter how low is the theoretical noise floor, Yamaha MC-1N2 DAC has issue when playing signals. As you can guess by this latest comparison graph and the number of spikes indicating some sound that shouldn't be there. iPad DAC is not perfect either, still it provides a much cleaner sound. The reference DAC shows how the graph should be.

-63.7dB level for “noise and distortions” is far from the level of performance expected from a last-gen audio IC.


InterModulation distortion + noise (swept freqs)
IMD + Noise at 5000 Hz: 0.0108, 0.0109
IMD + Noise at 10000 Hz: 0.0108, 0.0109
IMD + Noise at 15000 Hz: 0.0108, 0.0109

This test consist of a single sine played going from a very low frequency to 22kHz.

Actually, when playing something as simple as a single frequency at one time result is not so bad; music is rarely made of simples sines.


Stereo Crosstalk.
dB: -82.3

My guess is that Yamaha’s codec internal behavior is perturbed by a jittery clock source (being Exynos AP PLL clock). If not? it  would mean the DAC design is flawed. The first hypothesis is more likely: implementation on small very low power board is always tricky.

You cannot avoid the distortions described here by using an external amplifier or any other equipment.

Exploring sound with spectrograms

A spectrogram lets you “see” the sound, why I’ll use this colorful presentation to show you some examples of Galaxy S II audio output.

Udial


Galaxy S II udial output sampled at 96kHz (FLAC sample)

Reference, re-sampled to 96kHz with sox
For comparison: Apple iPad udial output (FLAC sample)

udial is a very interesting sample circulating in forums for more than ten years. I didn’t manage to find its author to thank him for his clever idea. udial is a very efficient stress test that enables an easy test for clipping, re-sampling and some types of jitter.

Galaxy S II performance is not terrible but not good either. Artifacts are audible and can be seen in this spectrogram. I must admit some are a mystery to me like the “delayed” ones.

Bass sines

Simple bass sines allow to check a few things: clipping, unwanted EQ, Bass Boost or Dynamic Range Compression but also buggy DC Servo setups.

The sample used here contains 7 tones: 100Hz, 80Hz, 60Hz, 50Hz, 40Hz, 30Hz, 20Hz.


Galaxy S II bass sine waves output (FLAC sample)


For comparison, Apple iPad bass sine waves output (FLAC sample)

Once again Galaxy S II exhibits artifacts. If you download the associated FLAC record phone’s output you may be able to hear those appearing as lines on the spectrograph (more noticeable on last 2 notes).

But it’s not all bad: Samsung’s phone spectral representation exposes a nice hardware feature called Digital Noise Gate.

DNG analyzes the signal played and quickly shut down parts of the codec. It helps reducing the perceived hiss and reducing power consumption a little.

Eventually (after about 2 seconds of nothing played) the entire audio hardware is shut down by Android OS but the best part is that Digital Noise Gate feature is extremely efficient as anti-pop.

MC-1N2 performance is class leading on this regard.

Headphone amp

Galaxy S II built-in headphone amp is able to drive in-ears or full size cans to satisfying levels. I know for sure mobile devices are never LOUD enough. Samsung’s flagship is louder than iPhones, iPads, a first-gen Galaxy S.

This part may become a dedicated article but here are some facts already:

At Max level (15/15):

AC Tension, no load (line-in): 0.703V

Driving Sennheiser HD 650 (300 Ω)

  • AC Tension under load: 0.621 V
  • Power (left+right): 2.11 mW

Driving Head-Direct RE0 (64 Ω in specs, mines measured at 58 Ω)

  • AC Tension under load 0.381 V
  • Power (left+right): 4.14 mW

Question is: Is it loud enough? When driving HD 650, it reaches comfortable listening levels but won’t reach “loud” levels. For RE0 and most consumer headphones, yes it's loud enough.

Remember isolating headphones are recommended when in loud environments rather than pumping volume too high and damage your hearing.

To me the quality of the amp itself is average-to-okay. Its hard to speak much about it as it’s most of the time amplifying the signal sent by a flawed DAC.

As distortion amount rises at highest levels, its probably MC-1N2 amp power stage implementation on Galaxy S II board does not have much headroom. More measurements may be welcome here.

High output impedance

One characteristic of Galaxy S II's headphone driver is its relatively high impedance: higher than competitor chips. Power efficiency diminishes when the output impedance grow: energy lost in heat. This is why Yamaha’s choice of design is surprising.

I measured mine at 49 Ω.

A notable side effect of this characteristic is that the headphone output becomes less loud with low impedance cans. 

Output impedance doesn’t have much effect on 300 Ω gear, but on common 16 Ω earphones:

  • Gain is lowered, hiss level is reduced: nice bonus
  • Frequency response shift: less bass, more highs. Okay if the tiny speakers was too bassy, terrible if the headphones were bright already.

As a result, Galaxy S II might play well with some equipment but also reveal the worst side of other with harsh and aggressive rendering.

This output impedance is why opinions about Galaxy S II audio are so contradictory in forums: experience can vastly differ depending on your choice of headphones.

Appreciation note

There are many issues or flaws listed and demonstrated in this article. However it doesn’t mean Galaxy S II is unable to play music.

Compared to the average Android phone it probably sounds better already. Explanations mean to show where there’s headroom for improvement on the next devices.

We're more than willing to discuss audio testing methodology with manufacturers to help improve the next generation of phones.

Samsung Music Player

Samsung updated their Google music player replacement look and feel with TouchWiz 4.0.

It still supports FLAC natively, which is a nifty feature for audiophiles and its simple interface and efficient will satisfy most users.

This pre-installed music player still lacks a much desired gapless feature, which means listening to mixes, concerts records or classical music won’t be as pleasing as it should.

You’ll find an 8 band graphic EQ in settings as well as EQ presets and additional sound effects adding reverberation, spatialization or stereo enhancements. Some effects are interesting if you’re not looking especially for an hi-fi accurate sound reproduction. However I would suggest to stay away of the EQ presets as much as possible:

The way the EQ engine uses a suboptimal DRC implementation makes constant volume changes audible.

If you really need to use this EQ, one workaround in using the graphic EQ manually instead: only attenuate but never increase some frequencies, those you find too present. This is in general the best way to use an EQ and find a more balanced sound response to correct headphone or speaker response.

This tip will avoid triggering the DRC.


Typical graphic EQ setup using only negative gains for frequency response correction

As usual with Android OS, you’ll be able set an alternative music player as the default one without any restriction, adding gapless , more compression codecs  support or a different UI.

2.4 and 5 GHz WiFi, GPS, and Audience The Fastest Smartphone SoC Today: Samsung Exynos 4210
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  • numberoneoppa - Wednesday, September 14, 2011 - link

    Guys, that mysterious notch you write about is not for straps, it's for phone charms, and it's arguably my favourite feature of samsung phones. (In korea, phone charms can be used for more than just cute things, one can get a T-money card that will hang here, or an apartment key). Reply
  • Tishyn - Wednesday, September 14, 2011 - link

    I spend hours every week just browsing through reviews and tests comparing devices and vendors. This is one if the most interesting and most comprehensive review I've read for a veery long time.

    I especially enjoyed the rendering part and how it relates to the ultra mobile device market. Thumbs up!
    Reply
  • milli - Wednesday, September 14, 2011 - link

    Brian / Anand, why are you so reluctant to test chips from this company? ZiiO tablets, sporting the ZMS-08, are available for a while now and i'm sure Creative would send you the new Jaguar3 tablet (ZMS-20) if you guys would ask for it.
    The ZMS-20 has 26 GFlops ... faster than anything you've tested till now. The ZMS-40 coming in Q4 doubles that number!
    I'm an old school IT technician and I for one don't understand your lack of interest. The GPU's in these chips are based on technology that Creative acquired with the 3DLabs purchase.
    Reply
  • rigel84 - Thursday, September 15, 2011 - link

    Just a quick tip: You can take a screenshot by pressing the power and home button at the same time.

    If you double tap your home button it will bring the voice talk feature.

    While watching video clips just press the power button to disable the touch sensitive buttons.

    Swipe your finger to the left on contact name to send him a message
    Swipe you finger to the right on the contact name to dial the contact.

    To see all the tabs in the browser just pinch inside twice :)

    If you experience random reboots when you drop it on the table, or if you are leaning towards things or running, then try to cut a piece of paper and put it under the battery. It happens because the battery shortly looses connection to the pins. If you check XDA you can see that many people has this problem, and I had it too. I was experiencing many random reboots whenever I had it in my pocket, but after I pit a piece of paper below the battery they all disappeared.

    A few things...
    - GPS is horrible if you ask me. Unless I download the data before with gps-status then it takes ages. Mostly 15-30 seconds with 2.3.3 (no idea if the radio got updated in the release)
    - Kies AIR is HORRIBLE! It's on pair with realmedia's real player from 10 years ago. Crash on crash on crash and sluggish behavior.
    - I don't know whether it's the phone or not, but I've been missing a lot of text messages after I got my Galaxy S2. I'm on the same net, but along with the poor GPS reception I'm suspectiong the phone :(
    - There is a stupid 458 character limit on textmessages, and then they are auto-converted to an MMS message. There is a fixed mms.apk on XDA (requires root) or you can download something like Go SMS Pro (still free) on the market, which removes this stupid limit.
    Reply
  • ph00ny - Thursday, September 15, 2011 - link

    Odd

    I haven't seen any posts about the battery disconnect issues and if you've been browsing the xda forum, probably saw my thread about dropping my phone on concrete twice...

    As for Kies AIR, i've used it twice and my expectation was low to begin and it wasn't that bad. Some things were definitely slow but it's a good start

    -GPS for me has always been solid. I even used it on multiple trips in less than ideal location, not a single glitch even with shoddy cell reception.
    Reply
  • ciparis - Tuesday, September 27, 2011 - link

    I've been using Sprint's SGS2 (Epic 4G) for less than a day, but already there are some annoying points which I'm surprised aren't mentioned in this review:

    1) The digitizer lags behind finger movement.
    In the web browser, when your finger moves, there is a disconnected rubber-band effect before the screen catches up with your finger. This is visible in the browsing smoothness video as well, and it's very noticeable in actual use. Coming from an iPhone 4, it feels cheap and broken.

    2) Back/Forward navigation often ignores the previous scroll point.
    If you spend some amount of time reading a page you arrived at from a link (it seems to be about 10 seconds or so), hitting back doesn't take you back where you were previously reading from -- instead of returning you to the page position where the link was, it drops you at the top of the page. This makes real web usage tedious. On the Sprint, the timing seems to be related to when the 4G icon indicates sleep mode: hit back before the radio sleeps and you are returned to the right spot. In actual use, this rarely happens.

    3) The browser resets the view to the top, even after you've started scrolling.
    When loading a page, there's a point in which the page is visible and usable, but it's technically still loading (which can go on for quite a awhile, depending on the page). It's natural to start reading the page and scrolling down, but typically the phone will randomly jerk the scroll back up to the top of the page, sometimes several times before the page is done. This is unbelievably annoying.

    I suppose expecting an Apple level of polish prior to release is unrealistic, but Samsung seems hell-bent on positioning themselves as an Apple-level alternative; even the power brick looks like they took the square Apple USB charger, colored it black, and slapped their logo on it. The point being, they're inviting direct comparison, and it's a comparison their software team isn't ready to deliver on -- certainly not out of the box.
    Reply
  • ciparis - Tuesday, September 27, 2011 - link

    How are you supposed to use this phone if the keyboard is covering up the text fields, there's no "next" button to get to the next field, you can't see what you're typing, and there's no button to make the keyboard go away?

    Case in point: go to Google News and click on Feedback at the bottom of the page. There's no scrolling room at the bottom, so the keyboard obscures the fields; I was unable to send feedback to Google that their news site was opening every link in a new bowser window on a mobile phone (...) despite my account having the preference for that set to "off", because I couldn't navigate the form fields.
    Reply
  • mythun.chandra - Wednesday, September 28, 2011 - link

    Just realized there are no numbers for the Adreno 220 in the GLBench 2.1 offscreen tests...? Reply
  • sam46 - Saturday, October 01, 2011 - link

    brian,please tell me which one of these smartphones is the best.i wanna purchase one of them so,pls help me in deciding. Reply
  • b1cb01 - Wednesday, October 05, 2011 - link

    I love the green wallpaper on the first page of the review, but I can't find it anywhere. Could someone point me to where I could find it? Reply

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