Benchmarks MySQL 4.0.18: Intel versus AMD

A Linux database server report would not be complete without the open source database MySQL. Many of our readers requested that we test with both MyISAM (default storage engine in MySQL 3.x) and InnoDB (default storage engine in MySQL 4.x), so we performed many more tests than last time.

It must be said that the MySQL results had a large margin of error (3% - 4%) compared to DB2, especially at high levels of concurrency.

Here is our MySQL configuration:

           Read_buffer=2GB
           Port=3306
           socket = /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
           skip-locking
           set-variable = max_user_connections= 2000
           set-variable = max_connections= 2000
           key_buffer=2G
           Read_buffer=2G
           table_cache=1024
           tmp_table=128M
           max_heap_table=256M
           read_rnd_buffer = 64M
           thread_cache=16
           net_buffer_length=16k

The " query cache" was off, as we wanted to test worst case performance. In some cases, the query cache was able to push a single Xeon to 1000 queries per second, and the CPU was still capable of doing more, as the CPU load was at 50% - 70%. At 1000 queries/s and more, other bottlenecks started to kick in, such as the latency of the network driver, the operating system and so on.

All numbers are expressed in queries per second. All concurrency tests below 5 are not reliable enough to make any firm conclusion as the margin of error is much higher.

Concurrency Dual Xeon (Gallatin)
with L3 cache
Single Xeon (Gallatin)
with L3 cache
Dual Xeon (Nocona)
with HT
Single Xeon (Nocona)
with HT
Dual Xeon (Irwindale)
3.6GHz with HT
Dual Core Intel
3.2GHz
Dual Opteron 250
2.4Ghz
Single Opteron 250
2.4GHz
Single Opteron 252
2.6 GHz
1 243 248 280 277 286 233 290 298 319
2 357 317 423 338 450 344 438 370 399
5 466 356 473 358 497 442 543 435 470
10 505 361 521 375 517 487 629 465 502
20 496 350 531 371 545 507 670 455 498
35 508 355 555 371 506 490 665 470 507
50 497 348 526 368 495 502 669 472 508
                   
AVG 494 354 521 368 512 486 635 460 497
MAX 508 361 555 375 545 507 670 472 508

Those were the raw numbers. Let us now analyse this...

Concurrency Dual versus Single Xeon Galatin Dual versus Single Xeon Nocona/ Irwindale Dual Opteron 250 vs Single
1 -2% 1% -3%
2 12% 25% 18%
5 31% 32% 25%
10 40% 39% 35%
20 42% 43% 47%
35 43% 50% 41%
50 43% 43% 42%
       
AVG 40% 41% 38%

MySQL ISAM is an incredibly fast database engine in our benchmark situation: it handles the same workload about twice as fast as DB2. I have to emphasize "our benchmark situation" because we cannot forget that our workload is mainly about reading the database and not writing. And of course, it must be said that the MySQL ISAM engine does less work on each query than DB2; it does not support transaction-safe (ACID compliant) commit, rollback, and crash recovery capabilities.

MySQL, as we have also noticed 6 months ago, doesn't seem to scale as well as DB2. At best, you get a 40% - 45% performance increase when the concurrency level is high enough. When we move to quad CPUs, we only get a 20% - 30% increase while DB2 still offers a 70% increase. The better scaling of DB2 means that with enough CPUs, it runs almost as fast as the MySQL ISAM engine, and offers all the transaction-safe capabilities as a bonus.

Let us check if the architectural differences between the CPUs make a difference . Again, don't pay too much attention to the results of the lower concurrency levels.

Concurrency Dual Xeon Irwindale versus Nocona (3,6 GHz) Xeon Nocona (3,6 GHz) vs Galatin (3,06) Opteron 2.6 vs Nocona 3.6 Opteron 2.6 vs Pentium-D Xeon Nocona 3,6 GHz vs Pentium-D
1 2% 12% 15% 37% 19%
2 6% 7% 18% 16% -2%
5 5% 1% 31% 6% -19%
10 -1% 4% 34% 3% -23%
20 3% 6% 34% -2% -27%
35 -9% 5% 37% 4% -24%
50 -6% 6% 38% 1% -27%
           
AVG -2% 4% 35% 2% -24%
MAX -2% 4% 36% 0% -26%

The bigger L2-cache of the Xeon Irwindale did nothing more than compensate for the slightly higher latency of the L2-cache. The Xeon Irwindale and Nocona perform alike.

MySQL, unless you get the special Intel Compiler optimized version, remains the stronghold of the Opteron. The fastest (single core) Opteron outperforms the best Intel CPU by a 35% margin. We didn't use the Intel compiler version as we have reason to believe that this version is not used a lot in the real world. We might try it out in a future article.

The relatively limited scaling also means that high clocked single CPUs can be an interesting option. This is illustrated by the Opteron 252 2.6 GHz, which outperforms the dual core Pentium-D 3.2 GHz by a small margin.

Benchmark Configuration Benchmarks (continued)
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  • imaheadcase - Friday, June 17, 2005 - link

    Wow that was a great Anandtech article. Pictures are good for those not to bright! numbers for those smart folks! :P

    Good article all jokes aside.
    Reply
  • bersl2 - Friday, June 17, 2005 - link

    #3: The thing is, that the effectiveness of optimization flags is dependent on the application being used (specifically, what the application is doing and how it is designed). Activating the wrong optimization can have adverse effects on performance.

    I would say that -march=xxx is always helpful, -O and -Os are always helpful, -O2 is almost always helpful, -ffast-math is usually helpful, and you should hold your breath on most anything else. You can also try Acovea (http://www.coyotegulch.com/products/acovea/index.h... which applies a genetic algorithm to compiler flags. Just don't expect to come out ahead, given the number of compiles you have to perform for such a small amount of performance.
    Reply
  • hondaman - Friday, June 17, 2005 - link

    I'm quite surprised at the poor showing by gentoo vs suse. What compile flags where used out of curiousity?

    Not that I'd ever use gentoo again. Traitor. :(
    Reply
  • Zebo - Friday, June 17, 2005 - link

    If you mean AMD dominates benchmarks and applications server, desktop, and worksation wise then everything is "pro AMD" Reply
  • Quanticles - Friday, June 17, 2005 - link

    SUSE is very pro AMD, I guess it's worked out. =) Reply

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