The process of moving data in and out of the Memory Array and over the Memory Bus is not overly complicated, although the massive parallelization of the actual effort can make it somewhat difficult to fully envision what's really happening without some pretty concise visual aids. We'll try our best to help you out in this regard.

Both read and write access to DDR[3] SDRAM is burst oriented; access starts at a selected location and continues in a pre-programmed sequence for a Burst Length (BL) of 8-bits, or 1 byte, per bank. This begins with the registration of an ACT command and is followed by one or more READ or WRI commands.

Chip Select (S0#, S1#), one for each rank, either enables (LOW) or disables (HIGH) the command decoder which works like a mask to ensure commands are acted upon by the desired rank only.

The length of the each Read Burst (tBurst) is always 4 clocks (4T) as DDR memory transmits data at twice the host clock rate (4 clocks x 2 transactions/clock = 8 transactions or 8 bits per bank).

The address bits registered coincident with the ACT command are used to select the bank and page (row) to be accessed. For our hypothetical 2GB DIMM described on Page 2 of this article, Bank Selects BA0-BA2 indicate the bank and Address Input Selects A0-A13 indicate the page. Three bits are needed to uniquely address all eight banks; likewise 14 bits are needed to address all 16,384 (214) pages.

The address bits registered coincident with the READ or WRI command are used to select the targeted starting column for the burst. A0-A09 select the column starting address (210 = 1,024). A12 is also sampled during this operation to determine if a Burst Chop (BC) of 4-bits has been commanded (A12 HIGH). Even though a Burst Chop delivers only half that data of a regular Read Burst, the time period to complete the transfer is still the same: 4T. The SDRAM core simply masks the outgoing data clock strobe for the second half of the full read cycle.

Figure 3. Memory read and write operations can be broken down into a series of well defined events

During a Precharge command A10 is sampled to determine whether the precharge is intended for one bank (A10 LOW; BA selects) or all banks (A10 HIGH).

Data Input/Output pins DQ0-DQ63 provide the 64-bit wide data interface between the memory controller embedded in the CPU and each DIMM. Those with a triple-channel capable CPU, like the Intel Core i7-series processor, will come to understand why the memory bus width is reported as 192-bit – three independently operated channels each with a 64-bit interface makes 192. Those of you running a Core 2 or a Core i3/i5 will have to make do with just two channels for a total bus width of 128 bits.

Each channel can be populated with up to two DIMMs. This means there could be a maximum of four ranks per channel, assuming we install a matched pair of dual-rank modules. Installing more than one DIMM per channel does not double the Memory Bus bandwidth, as modules co-located in the same channel must compete for access to a shared 64-bit sub-bus; however, adding more modules does have the added benefit of doubling the number of pages that may be open concurrently (twice the ranks for twice the fun!).

Figure 3 attempts to provide a top-down look at the minimum cycle needed to first open a page in memory, and then read data from the activated page; Figure 4 shows the same, only from a much more fundamental perspective; and Figure 5 provides a detailed accounting of the timing involved.

Figure 4. Now it all makes sense! (pun intended)

In this example we assume the bank has no open page, thus is already in the proper precharged state to support a new page access command. Step 1 selects the bank; Step 2 selects the column; and Step 3 bursts the data out over the Memory Bus. A 1-bit row address and a 2-bit column address are all we need to read any data stored in our 2 x 4-bit x 1 (bank) Memory Array.

An Activate command prompts the routing of the specified page address to be accessed to the Row Decoder where it triggers the chosen Word Line to appear at the input of the Sense Amps. As previously stated, this takes a finite time - Row-Column (or Command) Delay (tRCD) is used to program the minimum wait time the memory controller allows for this to occur before it issues the next command in the sequence. Attempting to set too low a timing can lead to inconclusive operation, often resulting in data corruption and other data access issues that ultimately lead to system crashes and other application errors.

Next, the column address provided with the Read command selects the right Bit Line, beginning the process of disregarding those bits that were not addressed. The wait associated with these events is the CAS Latency (CL or tCAS).

The Sense Amps work by sensing the direction of the voltage swing induced on the sense line when the Word Line is activated. Activating the page gates-on the switching element holding back the accumulated charge in a trench filled with dielectric material used to create the capacitive storage element of the memory cell. When this happens the sense line, starting from VRefDQ (½ VDDQ), either swings positive or negative, depending on the potential of the sampled memory cell. An increase in voltage encodes a 1, while a decrease means 0.

Click to enlarge
Figure 5. Shown here are pair of "back-to-back" reads. Our example Row Cycle Time (tRC) lets us transfer up to 16 bytes of data with a minimum Page open time of 24T using CL-tRCD-tRP-tRAS timings of 6-6-6-18

The Sense Amps are not comparators. Rather, each Sense Amp interfaces with a pair of memory cells, reducing the total number of amplifiers needed to otherwise sense the entire array by a factor of two.

Following the read, any charge stored in the memory cells is obliterated. This is what is meant by a destructive read: not only do the Sense Amps cache the page for access, they now hold the only known copy of that page of memory! Precharging the bank will force the Sense Amps to "write" the page back to the array and will prepare the sense lines for the next page access by "precharging" them to ½ VDDQ. This accomplishes two thing: (1) It returns all sense rails to a known, consistent potential, and (2) it sets the pre-sense line voltage at exactly half the full-scale value of VDDQ, ensuring whatever the potential stored in the cell, there will be a swing in voltage when the proper Word Line is activated.

Device Operation - SDRAM as a Simple State Machine Page Hit, Page Miss, Page Empty - Access Latency Matters
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  • JarredWalton - Monday, August 16, 2010 - link

    Oh, it's missing a lot more than just voltage information. :-) There are rebates on most memory kits right now, for instance. Still, I felt it was useful to highlight where the current "best deals" tend to fall.

    I personally wouldn't touch the ultra-expensive $150+ stuff, but up to $115 has potential at least. For a lower voltage kit, G.Skill has an ECO line rated at DDR3-1600 7-8-7-24-2N and 1.35V for $103. Worth a look at least....
    Reply
  • JarredWalton - Monday, August 16, 2010 - link

    Note: I screwed up my table above. DDR3 is two bits per clock, so the base clocks are all twice what I listed, which means latency for CAS is half what I listed. Sorry. Got things confused with GDDR5. :-) The relative latency is still the same, of course, which is the main point. Reply
  • JarredWalton - Monday, August 16, 2010 - link

    Side note number two: And of course, CAS Latency isn't the be-all, end-all. According to benchmarks by Raja, DDR3-2000 at 6-9-6 timings often trails RAM at 7-8-7, as the tRCD difference becomes more pronounced in some cases. Reply
  • Rajinder Gill - Monday, August 16, 2010 - link

    Sorry I should have said 7-7-8 vs 6-9-8. This happens when the number of random access requests are high (fewer back to back reads). Benchmarks like WinRar and Super Pi (synthetic) are mainly the ones that show this.

    -Raja
    Reply
  • Drag0nFire - Friday, August 20, 2010 - link

    I've had great experience with the ECO line. Put the 2x2 kit you mentioned in two computers so far, and it's been great. Feels like a steal to get such high speed and low voltage at such a great price. Reply
  • kalniel - Monday, August 16, 2010 - link

    Thanks for taking the time to write the article - the cycle time-line figures are very helpful, but I'm struggling to understand it correctly.

    Take fig. 5. There doesn't seem to be a Read to Precharge Delay. If we follow the recommendation of CL+tBurst = tRCP + tRP then won't there be a delay of 4T after the Data Read Burst before the RAS Precharge starts, giving a Row Cycle Time of 26 rather than 24?
    Reply
  • kjboughton - Monday, August 16, 2010 - link

    tRTP may very well be 4T but the minimum RAS Active Time (tRAS) is 18T. The precharge is precluded from occuring until this period has expired making the clock at T + 18 the first opportunity to precharge the bank. Add to this the RAS Precharge (tRP) and you have the Row Cycle Time (tRC = tRAS + tRP) - the minimum time any single row MUST remain open before it can be closed (and before another page in the same bank can be accessed).

    Does this help?
    Reply
  • kalniel - Monday, August 16, 2010 - link

    I thought the Read to Precharge Delay was there precisely to ensure you waited the minimum RAS active time before precharging the bank. Are you saying that the tRTP doesn't apply if you've already finished tRCD+CL+tBurst within tRAS so can start precharging as soon as minimum RAS active time is achieved?

    In other words, tRTP doesn't have a bearing on a single burst per page, but is there to help synchronise auto-precharge reads within the same page?

    My ignorance may be beyond redemption!
    Reply
  • kjboughton - Monday, August 16, 2010 - link

    Read to Precharge Delay (tRTP) is the minimum wait time from a READ (column access) to bank PRECHARGE.

    RAS Active Time (tRAS) is the minimum wait time from an ACTIVATE (row access) to bank PRECHARGE.

    Both times must be satisfied before the bank can be precharged. Perhaps I wasn't quite clear enough on this point. I hope this clears things up.
    Reply
  • kalniel - Monday, August 16, 2010 - link

    I think I've got it now, thanks. My brain saw the relevant diagram and screamed 'Cthulu' instead. Reply

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