The Chip

Barcelona is AMD's first quad-core processor, featuring four cores on a single 65nm die. Unlike Intel's quad-core Kentsfield, Barcelona is not made up of two dual core die, which is why AMD calls it a "native" quad core solution. Although there is a technical performance advantage to AMD's approach, we're unsure if it's something that will be visible in real world testing.

Built on AMD's 65nm process, Barcelona is a more complex design than the K8 requiring a total of 11 metal layers compared to 9 for K8 and 8 for Core 2. AMD has required more metal layers at the same process generation than Intel in previous years, so Barcelona is not unique. Additional metal layers make manufacturing a bit more complicated, but there are no significant downsides to the end user.


With four cores and an optional 2MB of L3 cache on-die, Barcelona weighs in at 463 million transistors. At 463 million transistors, Barcelona is 119 million transistors shy of Kentsfield's 582M count. The lower transistor count boils down to a lack of cache; each Barcelona core has a 128KB L1 cache and a 512KB L2 cache, with all four cores sharing a 2MB L3 cache, for a total of 4.5MB of cache on-die. Each of the two die that compose a single Kentsfield have two cores, each core with its own 64KB L1 and a shared 4MB L2. A single Kentsfield chip has a total of 8.25MB of cache on-die, over 80% more than Barcelona, thus explaining the 25.6% increase in transistor count.

However, Barcelona is far more than a quad-core K8 with an L3 cache. We estimate the number of non-cache transistors in a dual-core Athlon 64 X2 to be approximately 94M, and the Barcelona core is around 247M; even doubling the dual-core K8 figure won't get you close to Barcelona. Note that simply doubling the 94M number also isn't an accurate comparison as Barcelona only features a single on-die Northbridge. In essence, there are more than 60M additional transistors (or more than 15M per core) that went into architectural enhancements outside of more cores and cache in Barcelona.

Index SSE128
POST A COMMENT

83 Comments

View All Comments

  • R3MF - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    thanks.

    a 2.4GHz Agena on an AM2+ mATX motherboard, sat in a tiny SUGO 03 case sounds like a very tempting proposition later on this year.
    Reply
  • Macuser89 - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    Is it just me or is this article saying that AMD is copying a lot of intel's advancements. Great in depth article AT. Reply
  • Le Québécois - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    I may be wrong but I think that new CPU or GPU technologies are planned years ahead so for me it look more like they came down to the "same" conclusion on how to improve their CPU. Only Intel did it 1 year before AMD. Reply
  • JarredWalton - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    There are fundamentally only so many ways to improve processor performance, and Intel used most of them with Core 2. That AMD is using similar patterns (more buffers, better branch prediction, wider execution, etc.) isn't at all surprising. Just because the same basic principles are used, however, doesn't mean that at the transistor level there aren't significant differences and challenges to overcome. Reply
  • archcommus - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    Another great article that displays all the reasons why I read AT - lengthy, technical reviews written by educated authors that are interesting to read and to top it off, with no typing errors! I'm sure you guys use voice software to write these mammoths.

    I was waiting for details on Barcelona for so long and this is finally it. I have no doubt that AMD will be up to par with Intel again, but the question is, will this significantly SURPASS Core 2 offerings at the time? I hope so but it's not a definite thing yet.

    The best thing is, I'm a ways into my computer engineering degree now so I can actually understand a lot of these very techincal articles!
    Reply
  • Le Québécois - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    You said:
    quote:

    ...Barcelona's mid-2007 launch on servers and Q3 '07 launch for desktops...


    But isn't it the same thing?
    I mean mid-2007 is the 1st of july and Q3 also begins with july. Could you be more specific? Maybe the month we can expect them?
    Reply
  • JarredWalton - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    Q3 means anywhere between July and late September, while mid-2007 means June or July time frame. As the official launch date approaches, we'll refine things where possible. Reply
  • Le Québécois - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    Thank you for your quick reply, as usual. Reply
  • mjrpes3 - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    Any word on when the desktop variant of Barcelona (Agena) will find its way into consumer's hands? Reply
  • puffpio - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    When you refer to DDR3 you call it DDDR3
    unless...there is a DDDR3 I don't know about?
    Reply

Log in

Don't have an account? Sign up now