SSE128

AMD Architecture Comparison
K8 Barcelona
SSE Execution Width 64-bit 128-bit
Instruction Fetch Bandwidth 16 bytes/cycle 32 bytes/cycle
Data Cache Bandwidth 2 x 64-bit loads/cycle 2 x 128-bit loads/cycle
L2/Northbridge Bandwidth 64 bits/cycle 128 bits/cycle
FP Scheduler Depth 36 Dedicated x 64-bit ops 36 Dedicated x 128-bit ops

Many of the "major" changes to Barcelona were driven by one significant change: what AMD is calling SSE128. In the K8 architecture AMD can execute two SSE operations in parallel; however the SSE execution units are only 64-bits wide. For 128-bit SSE operations, the K8 had to handle them as two 64-bit operations. This also means that when a 128-bit SSE instruction is fetched, it is first decoded into two micro-ops (one for each 64-bit half of the instruction), thus taking up an extra decode port for a single instruction.

Barcelona widens the execution units that handle SSE operations from 64-bits to 128-bits, so now 128-bit SSE operations don't have to be broken up into two 64-bit operations. This also means that you get more usable decode bandwidth since 128-bit SSE instructions now map to a single micro-op instead of two. The FP scheduler can now handle these 128-bit SSE operations as well.

It's the increase to SSE execution width that drove a number of other changes within the core. Since you effectively have more decode bandwidth when executing 128-bit SSE instructions AMD discovered a new bottleneck: instruction fetch bandwidth. These 128-bit SSE instructions tend to be quite large, and in order to maximize the number decoded in parallel the Barcelona core can now fetch 32-bytes per cycle, up from 16-bytes in K8. The 32B instruction fetch not only benefits SSE code but also seems to benefit integer code as well. Bigger instructions in general will see a performance boost here.

Now that you can fetch and decode more instructions, you need to be able to get more data to the execution core and thus AMD widened the interface between the L1 data cache and Barcelona's SSE registers. Barcelona can now perform two 128-bit SSE loads per cycle from the L1-D cache compared to two 64-bit loads per cycle in K8. AMD then widened the interface between the L2 cache and the memory controller so that now 128-bits can be transferred per cycle, once again to balance out all of the aforementioned changes.

The culmination of the SSE128 improvements is very similar to some of the changes made in the Yonah to Merom transition. Prior to Conroe/Merom, Yonah could not keep up with AMD's K8 when it came to FP/SSE performance. Almost a year and a half ago we did an article where we compared AMD's K8 to Intel's Yonah running at the same clock speed. While Yonah was able to equal the K8's performance in general applications, professional 3D rendering and games, it could not compete when it came to video encoding.

There were a number of SSE performance improvements made to Yonah but it wasn't until Intel's Core 2 processors that Intel was really able to outperform AMD in our video encoding tests. Whether the improvements were due to the single cycle SSE throughput introduced in Core 2 or the wider front end or a combination of both remains to be seen. Although it's difficult to compare specs between two very different architectures, encoding performance is a sore spot for AMD today, and it's something that the SSE128 changes can only help.

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  • JustKidding - Friday, March 2, 2007 - link

    So what you are saying is that it's not the size of your cache that matters as much as how well you use it. Reply
  • VooDooAddict - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    quote:

    Smaller cache will mean fewer transistors which should mean better yields, lower power consumption and cheaper to produce.


    With Cache size differences usually having small impact on performance for Athlon64s, the slight trade off for better yields and margins seems the better choice for AMD here.
    Reply
  • Regs - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    Where was this article 8 months ago? ;)


    I agree with Anands closing article that AMD now needs it's own "snowball effect" for the next couple of years. 4-5 years with a sitting target against a giant like Intel prooved to be costly in terms of competivness.

    We all saw it coming when Intel developed the first Pentium M. It looks like AMD got the message as well and started the Barcelona project. Maybe AMD learned their lesson.
    Reply
  • iwodo - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    So bascially all intel 's C2D improvement are made into Barcelona. And apart from Virtualization improvement there are nothing new from AMD that Intel doesn't have?

    On performance note Barcelona doesn't seem to offer better clock scaling. I.e even if it is 30% faster then its current K8 it will only have slight advantage against C2D clock per clock. Not to mention it is up against Penryn. Although Penryn is nothing much then a few minor tweaks and more cache. It does allow intel to scale higher in clock speed.

    And given AMD slow roll out rate, and AMD limited production capacity Barcelona never seem like much of a threat.

    The article does not mention anything about FP improvement. Are AMD keeping them secret for now or is that all we are going to see?
    Reply
  • Spoelie - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    The FP improvement is the SSE improvement, and according to the theory it's more powerful than what core2 duo is offering.

    There are improvements mentioned that are not in core2 (+ other way around, like instruction fusing), and improvements that are inspired on the same principle but implemented differently. The architectures themselves differ widely (see earlier article that compares K8 with Core2 - reservation station etc.) so different implementations of principally the same optimizations on a different architecture will have vastly different effects. Even after these improvements, the capabilities (how much can you decode, etc) of each read nothing alike. And if it were all the same, AMD has the platform advantage, so it would still end up faster by virtue of nothing else but that. Some guesstimates made by varying sites would put Barcelona ahead in FP code and at the same level or slightly behind in INT code. But those are just guesstimates.

    What I'm trying to say here is that barcelona is still very different from core2, and that we just don't know yet in which direction the pendulum will swing ;)
    Reply
  • Shintai - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    No....precisely in theory is where Barcelona lacks. Core 2 Duo could in theory do 6 64bit or 3 128bit SSE instructions per cycle. Barcelona can do 4 64bit or 2 128bit. AMD provided this information aswell. Reply
  • Griswold - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    Wishful thinking. Reply
  • Spoelie - Thursday, March 1, 2007 - link

    Hmmm, in the earlier article, there was explicit emphasis on the fact that 2 of the 3 units are symmetric in core2, but I'm not too sure what it means. It does imply however that those 3 units of core2 can only be used fully in certain combinations, and are not 3 independent units. On 128-bit performance, what was said is this: "so the Core architecture has essentially at least 2 times the processing power here [compared to K8]". Not 3 times, but "at least" 2 times, so again the 3 times will probably only be in certain situations.

    The next paragraph said this:
    "With 64-bit FP, Core can do 4 Double Precision FP calculations per cycle, while the *Athlon64* can do 3."
    So K8 was not at such a big disadvantage when it came to 64-bit SSE, if Barcelona doubles everything SSE, it should come ahead in this area.

    So to me it looks like for 128-bit, core2 will be faster in some situations, on par in others, and for 64-bit, Barcelona would be ahead.

    If this is wrong, I do not know where some of the articles I read over time came from, implying Barcelona would be better overall in SSE.
    Reply
  • Shintai - Friday, March 2, 2007 - link

    Core 2 got 3 individual SSE ports:
    http://www.realworldtech.com/page.cfm?ArticleID=RW...">http://www.realworldtech.com/page.cfm?ArticleID=RW...

    AMD says 4 double:
    http://www.anandtech.com/showdoc.aspx?i=2768&p...">http://www.anandtech.com/showdoc.aspx?i=2768&p...

    And 64 or 128bit doesnt matter. I dont know how you think that way.
    Barcelona got 2 SSE ports. They are able to do 2 128bit or 4 64bit. Most 128bit actually contains 2 64bit or 4 32bit.
    Core 2 got 3 SSE ports. They are able to do 3 128bit or 6 64bit.
    Reply
  • flyck - Friday, March 2, 2007 - link

    core duo has 3 SSE units but they are not symmetric, meaning that not every unit can execute all commands. Core duo can do at best 4DP flops/ cycle. the same as barcelona. Reply

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