Fundamental Windows 10 Issues: Priority and Focus

In a normal scenario the expected running of software on a computer is that all cores are equal, such that any thread can go anywhere and expect the same performance. As we’ve already discussed, the new Alder Lake design of performance cores and efficiency cores means that not everything is equal, and the system has to know where to put what workload for maximum effect.

To this end, Intel created Thread Director, which acts as the ultimate information depot for what is happening on the CPU. It knows what threads are where, what each of the cores can do, how compute heavy or memory heavy each thread is, and where all the thermal hot spots and voltages mix in. With that information, it sends data to the operating system about how the threads are operating, with suggestions of actions to perform, or which threads can be promoted/demoted in the event of something new coming in. The operating system scheduler is then the ring master, combining the Thread Director information with the information it has about the user – what software is in the foreground, what threads are tagged as low priority, and then it’s the operating system that actually orchestrates the whole process.

Intel has said that Windows 11 does all of this. The only thing Windows 10 doesn’t have is insight into the efficiency of the cores on the CPU. It assumes the efficiency is equal, but the performance differs – so instead of ‘performance vs efficiency’ cores, Windows 10 sees it more as ‘high performance vs low performance’. Intel says the net result of this will be seen only in run-to-run variation: there’s more of a chance of a thread spending some time on the low performance cores before being moved to high performance, and so anyone benchmarking multiple runs will see more variation on Windows 10 than Windows 11. But ultimately, the peak performance should be identical.

However, there are a couple of flaws.

At Intel’s Innovation event last week, we learned that the operating system will de-emphasise any workload that is not in user focus. For an office workload, or a mobile workload, this makes sense – if you’re in Excel, for example, you want Excel to be on the performance cores and those 60 chrome tabs you have open are all considered background tasks for the efficiency cores. The same with email, Netflix, or video games – what you are using there and then matters most, and everything else doesn’t really need the CPU.

However, this breaks down when it comes to more professional workflows. Intel gave an example of a content creator, exporting a video, and while that was processing going to edit some images. This puts the video export on the efficiency cores, while the image editor gets the performance cores. In my experience, the limiting factor in that scenario is the video export, not the image editor – what should take a unit of time on the P-cores now suddenly takes 2-3x on the E-cores while I’m doing something else. This extends to anyone who multi-tasks during a heavy workload, such as programmers waiting for the latest compile. Under this philosophy, the user would have to keep the important window in focus at all times. Beyond this, any software that spawns heavy compute threads in the background, without the potential for focus, would also be placed on the E-cores.

Personally, I think this is a crazy way to do things, especially on a desktop. Intel tells me there are three ways to stop this behaviour:

  1. Running dual monitors stops it
  2. Changing Windows Power Plan from Balanced to High Performance stops it
  3. There’s an option in the BIOS that, when enabled, means the Scroll Lock can be used to disable/park the E-cores, meaning nothing will be scheduled on them when the Scroll Lock is active.

(For those that are interested in Alder Lake confusing some DRM packages like Denuvo, #3 can also be used in that instance to play older games.)

For users that only have one window open at a time, or aren’t relying on any serious all-core time-critical workload, it won’t really affect them. But for anyone else, it’s a bit of a problem. But the problems don’t stop there, at least for Windows 10.

Knowing my luck by the time this review goes out it might be fixed, but:

Windows 10 also uses the threads in-OS priority as a guide for core scheduling. For any users that have played around with the task manager, there is an option to give a program a priority: Realtime, High, Above Normal, Normal, Below Normal, or Idle. The default is Normal. Behind the scenes this is actually a number from 0 to 31, where Normal is 8.

Some software will naturally give itself a lower priority, usually a 7 (below normal), as an indication to the operating system of either ‘I’m not important’ or ‘I’m a heavy workload and I want the user to still have a responsive system’. This second reason is an issue on Windows 10, as with Alder Lake it will schedule the workload on the E-cores. So even if it is a heavy workload, moving to the E-cores will slow it down, compared to simply being across all cores but at a lower priority. This is regardless of whether the program is in focus or not.

Of the normal benchmarks we run, this issue flared up mainly with the rendering tasks like CineBench, Corona, POV-Ray, but also happened with yCruncher and Keyshot (a visualization tool). In speaking to others, it appears that sometimes Chrome has a similar issue. The only way to fix these programs was to go into task manager and either (a) change the thread priority to Normal or higher, or (b) change the thread affinity to only P-cores. Software such as Project Lasso can be used to make sure that every time these programs are loaded, the priority is bumped up to normal.

Intel Disabled AVX-512, but Not Really Power: P-Core vs E-Core, Win10 vs Win11
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  • Wrs - Saturday, November 6, 2021 - link

    @Netmsm I'll leave that to the market as I don't foresee using any of the 3 that soon lol. It would stand to reason that if one product is both cheaper and better, it would keep gaining share at the expense of the other. If that doesn't happen I would question the premise of cheaper + better. And seeing as it's a major market for Intel, I have little doubt they'll adjust prices if they do find themselves selling an inferior product.
  • Netmsm - Sunday, November 7, 2021 - link

    That's right. We always check performance per watt and per dollar. A product should be reasonable with respect to its price and power consumption, this is a must.

    12900k can consume up to 241 which is very closer to Threadripper not Ryzen 5900's TDP and yet competing with chips having 125 TDP! What a parody this is!

    I can't disregard and throw away efficiency factor, that's all.
  • Spunjji - Friday, November 5, 2021 - link

    Seeing this has made me very interested to see the value proposition Alder Lake will be offering in gaming notebooks. I was vaguely planning to switch up to a Zen 3+ offering for my next system, but this might be enough to make me reconsider.
  • EnglishMike - Thursday, November 4, 2021 - link

    <blockquote>re: Enterprise: Considering power consumption, it's like a Pyrrhic victory for Intel.</blockquote>
    Why? This is not an enterprise solution -- that's the upcoming Sapphire Rapids Xeon processors, a completely different CPU platform.

    Sure, if all you're doing is pegging desktop CPUs at 100% for video processing or a similar workload, then Alder Lake isn't for you, but the gaming benchmarks clearly show that when it comes to more typical desktop workloads, the i9 12900k is inline with the top of the line AMD processors in terms of power consumption.
  • Netmsm - Thursday, November 4, 2021 - link

    and who in his right mind would believe that upcoming Xeon processors can bring revolutionary breakthrough in power consumption?!
  • EnglishMike - Friday, November 5, 2021 - link

    And that, my friend, is a great example of moving the goalposts.

    We'll have to see what Intel offers re: Xeon's but one thing is for sure, they're going to offer a completely different power profile to their flagship desktop CPUs, because that's the nature of the datacenter business.
  • Netmsm - Saturday, November 6, 2021 - link

    Of course the nature of enterprise won't accept this power consumption. In PC world customers may not care how ineffective a processor is. Intel will reduce the power consumption but the matter is how its processor will accomplish the job! We see an unacceptable performance to watt in Intel's new architecture that needs something like a miracle for Xeon's to become competitive with Epyc's.
  • Wrs - Saturday, November 6, 2021 - link

    No miracle is needed... just go down the frequency-voltage curve. Existing Ice Lake Xeons already do that. What's new about Sapphire Rapids is not so much the process tech (it's still 10nm) but the much larger silicon area enabled per package due to the EMIB packaging. That's their plan to be competitive with Epyc and its multichip modules.
  • Netmsm - Sunday, November 7, 2021 - link

    And what will happen to performance as frequency-voltage curve goes down?
    Just look at facts! With about 100w more power consumption Intel's new architecture gets itself in front of Zen 3 by a slight margin in some cases that lucidly tells us it can never reduce power consumption and yet beat Epyc in performance.
  • Wrs - Sunday, November 7, 2021 - link

    @Netmsm I'm looking at facts. The process nodes are very similar. One side has both a bigger/wider core (Golden Cove) and a really small core (Gracemont). The other side just has the intermediate size core (Zen 3). As a result, on some benchmarks one side wins by a fair bit, and on other benchmarks, the other side takes the cake. Many benches are a tossup.

    In this case the side that theoretically wins on efficiency at iso-throughput (MC performance) is the side that devotes more total silicon to the cores & cache. When comparing a 12900k to a 5950x, the latter has slightly more area across the CCDs, about 140 mm2 versus around 120 mm2. The side that's more efficient at iso-latency (ST/lightly threaded) is the one that devotes more silicon to their largest/preferred cores, which obviously here is ADL. In practice companies don't release their designs at iso-performance, and for throughput benchmarks one may encounter memory and other platform bottlenecks. But Intel seems to have aggressively clocked Golden Cove such that it's impossible for AMD to reach iso-latency with Zen 3 no matter the power input (i.e., you'd have to downclock the ADL). That has significant end-user implications as not everything can be split into more threads.

    The Epyc Rome SKUs are already downclocked relative to Vermeer, like most server/workstation CPUs. Epyc Rome tops out at 64 Zen3 cores across 8 chiplets. Sapphire Rapids, which isn't out yet, has engineering samples topping out at 80 Golden Cove cores across 4 ~400mm2 chiplets. Given what we know about relative core sizes, which side is devoting more silicon to cores? There's your answer to performance at iso-efficiency. That's not to say it's fair to compare a product a year out vs. one you can obtain now, but also I don't see a Zen4 or N5 AMD server CPU within the next year.

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