Intel's new Atom Microarchitecture: The Tremont Core in Lakefieldby Dr. Ian Cutress on October 24, 2019 1:30 PM EST
A Wider Back End
Moving beyond the micro-op queue, Tremont has an 8 execution ports, filled from 7 reservation stations.
The only two ports using a combined reservation station are the address generator units (AGUs) - this is in stark contrast to the Core design, which in Sunny Cove uses a unified reservation for all integer and floating point calculations and three for the AGUs. The reason that Tremont uses a unified reservation station for the two AGUs, also backed by extra memory for queued micro-ops, is in order to supply both AGUs with either 2x 16-byte stores, 2x 16-byte loads, or one of each. Intel clearly expects the AGUs on Tremont to be fairly active compared to other execution ports.
On the integer side, aside from the two AGUs, Tremont has 3 ALUs, a jump port, and a store data port. Each ALU supports different functions, with one enabling shift functions and another for multiplication and division. Compared to core, these ALUs are extremely lightweight, and Intel hasn’t gone into specifics here.
On the floating point side, we are a little bit more varied – the three ports are split between two ALUs and a store port. The two ALUs have one focused on fused additions (FADD), while the other focuses on fused multiplication and division (FMUL). Both ALUs support 128-bit SIMD and 128-bit AES instructions with a 4-cycle latency, as well as single instruction SHA256 at 4-cycles. There is no 256-bit vector support here. In order to help with certain calculations, GFNI instruction support is included.
There is also a larger 1024-entry L2 TLB, supporting 1024x 4K entries, 32x 2M entries, or 8x 1G entries. This is an upgrade from the 512-entry L2 TLB in Goldmont.
As with any generation, Intel adds new supported instructions to either accelerate common calculations that would traditionally require lots of instructions or to add new functionality. Tremont is no different.
(When asked what other new instructions are supported, Intel stated to look at the published documents about future instructions. When it was pointed out that those documents weren’t exactly clear and that in the past Intel hasn’t spoken about future designs, we were not afforded additional comments.)
When we get hold of a Tremont device, we’ll do a full instruction breakdown.