Now that you've picked out your CPU, it's time to start picking out the rest of your system components. And perhaps the most humble but overlooked of these components is the power supply unit (PSU). Available in a wide range of sizes and power capacities, there are a number of great PSUs out there, but choosing between them can be a challenge. So today we're bringing you our annual PC power supply guide, to help you sort figure out what the best options are, be it a low-wattage unit for a small form factor PC, or a hulking kilowatt unit for the most powerful PC.

AnandTech PC Power Supply Recommendations: 2017
(Prices are Nov-17 or MSRP)
Output Range Performance Option Value Option
Under 400 Watts Seasonic SS-400FL2 $100 Seasonic SSP-300ST $35
400-600 Watts Seasonic SS-520FL2 $120 Corsair CX550 $30*
600-800 Watts Corsair HX750 $116 Riotoro Onyx 750W $80
800-1000 Watts Seasonic PRIME Titanium 1000W $260 BitFenix Whisper M 850W $94
Over 1000 Watts Corsair AX1500i $414 Cougar GX1050V3 $138
*after rebate

We've split our recommendations into five main wattage categories with at least two units for each. One selection will be based on the maximum possible value (e.g. bang for the buck) and one will focus on the best overall performance. The following paragraphs expand on the proper selection of a PSU and details on why these units are our recommendations.

How Much Power Do I Really Need?

When shopping for a PSU, it is very important to be aware of your system’s power consumption and to consider of any forthcoming planned upgrades. All current computer PSUs are designed to deliver optimal performance at (or almost at) half load. It is a common misconception that a more powerful PSU will be a better choice, as the power quality and efficiency of all modern PSUs dwindles at very low loads. This is especially true at the low-end of the loading curve – usually below 15% of the unit's rated capacity – where efficiency outright plummets.

As a result, using too powerful of a PSU will result poor power efficiency, which could very well be significantly worse than what a product at a fraction of the price would deliver. It is wise to remember that the advertised performance of a PSU is within the nominal load range (20% to 100% of its rated capacity) and the manufacturer is not obliged to include information on how much the performance degrades at sub-20% load conditions. Only the 80Plus Titanium guidelines dictate an efficiency requirement of 90% at 10% load. Therefore, the selection of a severely oversized PSU is both economically and practically senseless.

Overall, the best way to select a PSU is based on both objective (e.g. wattage, performance) and subjective (e.g. design, modular cables) parameters. This admittedly does require every builder to be capable of making at least an educated guess about the power requirements of the system. However this is where our guide and advice come in.

Perhaps the biggest mistake that many users make in selecting PSUs is overrating the power requirements of their systems. It is not uncommon for people – even store salespersons and experienced builders – to recommend a 1kW unit to a user with just two (or even one) high performance GPUs. A system with a single CPU and a single GPU rarely requires more than 300 Watts. A modern Intel Coffee Lake-based system with a single AMD RX 570/NVIDIA GTX 1060 card will hardly reach up to 220-230 Watts, while it usually idles at 45-55 Watts.

Meanwhile "wattage calculators", though an improvement from blindly guessing, are usually simple tools that get their numbers from the design power (TDP) specifications of components. The TDP of a component does not represent the actual power requirements of a component -  it's at best a broad guideline - and it also is next to impossible to place every single component of a system under maximum stress simultaneously. However, keep in mind that a PSU needs to operate at half load for optimal performance. With that in mind, while the recommendations of the online tools and calculators may be overestimated, they're not overly so. Selecting a unit of the wattage they recommend is not usually a bad idea, as the recommendation usually is twice the actual power requirements of the system. The common mistake is that users usually seek to buy a significantly more powerful unit, thinking that having extra power helps, and end up with a severely oversized PSU for their system that will be both more expensive to purchase and unable to perform as it should.

If you can measure the actual power requirements of your system, keep in mind that you should not buy a unit that will frequently operate near its maximum capacity. Just as you would not run your car constantly near the red line, a PSU should not be under maximum stress for prolonged periods. A high quality PSU can withstand it, but just because it can does not mean it should. Again, all switching PSUs deliver their maximum efficiency at roughly 50% of their rated capacity. Running a PSU at over 90% capacity for prolonged periods of time will not only reduce its performance but it will also make it hotter, louder, and decrease its expected lifespan.

< 400 Watts
Seasonic SS-400FL2($100)
Seasonic SSP-300ST($35)

Although it is unlikely that most enthusiasts will even look at products rated at or under 400 Watts, the truth is that these are the ideal products for modern low-energy PC with a mainstream CPU and an average gaming GPU (or no GPU). Sadly, it is not a very popular segment of the market and there is little competition, meaning that there is not a very wide selection of products for the users.

For a low-cost product of reasonable quality that is backed up with a warranty from a reputable manufacturer, our recommendation would be the Seasonic SSP-300ST. Although it looks far too simplistic, with an unpainted chassis and bare color-coded wires, the SSP-300ST is one of the very few <400W units that is based on a relatively modern platform and not a design that is over a decade old. It has an 80Plus Bronze efficiency certification and Seasonic covers it with a 3-year warranty. $37 will not get you anything better than that.

If you found the Seasonic SSP-300ST is a little too simple, a reasonable recommendation would be the PC Power & Cooling Silencer 400W. It is an aged design and performs about as well as the SSP-300ST, but $76 will get you an attractive semi-modular PSU. With only a handful of companies offering high performance PSUs in this segment of the market, modern designs are but a handful and very expensive. Seasonic currently offers the best 400W PSU available, the passively cooled SS-400FL2 Platinum, but its $100 price tag will drive all but the most demanding users away.

400 to 600 Watts
Seasonic SS-520FL2($120)
Corsair CX550($30)

Unlike the ostracized <400 Watt range, there is a great demand for 400 to 600 Watt PSUs and, therefore, a vast selection of products available. This is the sensible power range for a typical home entertainment/gaming PC with a single GPU card.

There are many interesting options in this power range but our best value recommendation this year goes to the Corsair CX550. It is based on a relatively old platform and only has an 80Plus Bronze efficiency certification, but is currently on sale for just $30 after rebate. For users who want a reliable PSU that will get the job done, we could not find a better deal than this.

Most top performance units in this power range are at or above the $100 mark. The one that stands out is the fanless Seasonic SS-520FL2 that currently retails for $120. It definitely is an expensive unit but is 80Plus Platinum certified, fully modular, entirely fanless, and covered by a 7-year warranty. If you are going to spend $100 for a high performance PSU, you might as well go the extra mile and spend $120 for a top-quality fanless unit.

600 to 800 Watts
Corsair HX750($116)
Riotoro Onyx 750W($80)

PSUs with an output between 600 and 800 Watts are very popular amongst gamers and overclockers. They are powerful enough for dual GPU gaming systems and provide enough overhead for serious overclocking and mods. This power band is also popular among users that will be using just one GPU, as the power overhead frequently creates a feeling of security.

Our recommendation for those seeking to combine performance with value is the new Riotoro Onyx 750W PSU, as it offers a great balance between aesthetics, performance, and quality. It is based on a recent Great Wall platform and is unexpectedly efficient despite its mediocre rating. It currently retails for $80 including shipping, which is a reasonable price for a quality 750W PSU.

There are many contenders in this power range that we could recommend based solely on their electrical performance. If we are to take into account the value of the product however, our recommendation surely is the Corsair HX750. The latest revision has exceptional electrical performance and is of outstanding quality, yet its retail price is a very reasonable $116 including shipping. The HX750i with the Corsair Link interface will cost $40 higher and we do not recommend it unless some specific application makes the constant software monitoring of the PSU a necessity.

800 to 1000 Watts
Seasonic SSR-1000TD($260)
BitFenix Whisper M 850W($94)

This power range should be reserved for users that want to power high-end dual GPU computers. We cannot go very cheap in this power range because we believe that long-term reliability is an absolute must whether we are considering a high-end gaming system or a professional workstation.

The new BitFenix Whisper M 850 Watt PSU is a relatively inexpensive but highly effective choice in this power range. It is a bit aesthetically blunt but $94 will get you a fully modular 80Plus Gold certified PSU that is based on a modern Channel-Well Technologies platform. There are no other units retailing for less than $100 that we could easily recommend.

For those that seek top electrical performance regardless of the cost, Seasonic has you covered. The new PRIME Titanium units have mythical performance but also equally unreal price tags. The SSR-1000TD PRIME Titanium 1000W unit currently retails for $260 but its electrical performance is undoubtedly unmatched by any other product currently in the market.

Over 1000 Watts
Corsair AX1500i($414)
Cougar GX1050V3($138)

If you require a PSU with this kind of output, chances are that you have at least two extensively overclocked high-end GPUs and/or a seriously powerful dual-CPU system with a lot of devices. These PSUs also find use in advanced servers and cryptocurrency mining systems. That being said, the PSU is going to be powering a rather expensive system, the function of which is frequently very important.

Considering the above, the selection of a "value" PSU within this power band is a complex procedure, as the PSU has to meet high reliability standards. It is very difficult to find any quality units that cost less the $200 in this power range. Possibly the sole exception is the new Cougar GX1050V3, a modern 80Plus Gold certified unit that retails for $138 + shipping. There is currently no other unit matching its performance and/or its quality anywhere near this price range.

For users that want the absolute best and cost is not an issue, the Corsair AX1500i has been the undisputed performance champion over the past several years. Seasonic and their new PRIME Titanium series are serious competition against Corsair’s flagships, but Seasonic does not have any relevant units with a power output as high as the AX1500i does. There is virtually no other >1200 Watt PSU available today that combines the quality, performance, efficiency, and features of the AX1500i. The only problem is that the AX1500i currently retails for $400, which is enough to buy a complete mainstream system.

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  • 1_rick - Friday, November 17, 2017 - link

    " What I know is you can get a very decent 750 watt power supply for $100, So why recommend a 400 watt power supply at $100?"

    Efficiency at the low end of the usage curve. My PC has one NMVE M.2, a Ryzen 1600X 4GHz@1.35V, and a GTX 950. At idle it might be below 10% of the capacity where the efficiency curve falls off dramatically. Also, if it never draws over (say) 200-250W even running OCCT GPU tests or something, a 750W is silly and a waste.

    (I'm making up numbers in this post. I built that machine only recently and, while I have a Kill-A-Watt, I haven't hooked this machine into it yet to measure usage. But my previous PC, a 3570K with a 650 Ti Boost, never went over about 220W even during stress tests. I don't remembe the idle loads, but it was definitely under 75W.
    Reply
  • airdrifting - Friday, November 17, 2017 - link

    Let me put it in language you can understand: Spending $100 on a 400 watt, or $120 on a 500 watt is a complete waste. You do NOT need to spend $100 just to get a "performance 400 watt power supply". Less than $50 will get you a Seasonic S12II 520 or even 620 which is all you need for a midrange system. It's well made, It has active PFC and 80 Plus bronze and will last you many years even if you run it 24/7.
    If you are spending $100, You should be getting a quality 750 Watt power supply instead. If you are spending $120 to get a 500 watt power supply regardless maker, You are wasting money and not spending your budget at the right place. The extra $70 does not return any "performance" or "quality" that matters in real life. It's like all you need is just a regular durable stainless steel water cup, Why buying a cup that is made of diamond serving the same purpose?
    Reply
  • LordanSS - Friday, November 17, 2017 - link

    This is really baffling.

    All of the recommendations made here are sound. The "performance" mentioned here is not just about power output, but also the output's quality.

    Bronze/Gold/Platinum labels don't mean much if the power coming out of them is poor, with a lot of ripple and voltage deviation. Also, to many people, good warranty from manufacturers is a critical point.

    Perhaps you, airdrifting, would be happy with a $20 sub-400W PSU. It's your system, your money, your decision. But trying to push that onto other people is a different thing.

    PS: Thank you for the guide, Mr. Fylladitakis. I like your PSU reviews as they cover a wide range of things about the PSU in test, and use a very scientific way of doing so. Keep up the good work.
    Reply
  • 1_rick - Friday, November 17, 2017 - link

    "Let me put it in language you can understand"

    Why, thank you for your condescending attitude! (I actually have, I think, a CX430 in my new PC, so I didn't spend $100 on a power supply, so your snidely-developed scenario isn't even relevant to me.)
    Reply
  • 1_rick - Friday, November 17, 2017 - link

    OK, so I dug out my kill-a-watt, and at idle, my PC draws 50-52W. Running a Prime95 torture test, it draws 150W. Doing "stuff" (posting here and downloading OCCT) it seems to pull around 80W. Why would I ever pay for capacity I don't need over a higher efficiency supply?

    If you're objecting to this article's recommending a $100 400W PSU, fine, but they've also got a $30-after-rebate one in the same power range.
    Reply
  • Arnulf - Saturday, November 18, 2017 - link

    Let me put this in a language you can understand: you buy what you like, we buy what we like, it's that simple. We understand that your mommy cannot afford $100+ PSU. Reply
  • Arnulf - Saturday, November 18, 2017 - link

    My most recent build contains a fanless XFX 460W PSU. Sicne my computer rarely exceeds 100W (with all cores fully loaded and both optical drive and HDD spinning) I woudl rather settle for a quality 300W model if one was available (but sadly isn't/wasn't).

    Ergo there are those of us who do care about quality PSUs with reasonable power ratings; not everybody on Anandtech is a little kid who only cares about running latest games on his dual SLI that your mommy bought you ...
    Reply
  • E.Fyll - Tuesday, November 21, 2017 - link

    "The moment I saw a 400 watt power supply with $100 price tag is recommended, And power supplies are divided into "Performance" and "value" category, I stopped reading. What kind of amateur wrote this piece of work? Those recommendations are so idiotic that I actually registered an account just to post here."

    You stopped reading paragraphs that you should be reading, wasting time writing a four paragraph comment that just makes the former all too obvious.

    "A good power supply is a reliable one that will last you many years and won't fry anything when it goes out"

    And Hyundai's are quite good cars but people still go around buying Mustang's and Ferrari's. Go figure.

    "So they either deliver the power at rated wattage with stable voltage or not."

    It is not quite as simple as that. Feel free to read my comment to wumpus and you'll at least learn the most basic basics.

    "Just look to see which power supply gets sold out during a mining frenzy"

    Not nearly there. A PSU like that possibly is very reliable and offers good bang for the buck but its acoustics performance will probably be horrible. Miners want PSUs that can stay very cool at maximum power, not products with good overall performance. It may be noisy and its low-end power output quality is likely to be horrible. Recommending a PSU just because "miners approve it" is highly irresponsible.
    Reply
  • CheapSushi - Friday, November 17, 2017 - link

    The people complaining about the "performance" distinction probably have never bothered to look into deep diving reviews like from JohnnyGuru. There's more to a PSU than just stats on the sticker on side. Reply
  • DanNeely - Friday, November 17, 2017 - link

    Or even E. Fylladitakis's reviews here. He can't match OklahomaWolf's level of sarcasm when tearing into a piece of garbage that has the misfortune to end up on his test bench; but he does cover all the key points on voltage stability, ripple, etc that differentiate between a high quality unit and one that struggles to meet the minimum to pass the spec. Reply

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