07:56PM EDT - Sitting down, ready to go

08:01PM EDT - This is the last set of talks at Hot Chips. Starting with IBM, then Intel Xeon, AMD EPYC and Qualcomm Centriq

08:02PM EDT - We've covered Xeon, EPYC and Centriq in recent articles, and nothing new is being announced for the show for them except some minor things that we'll summarize in a news post

08:02PM EDT - But the IBM z14 will be interesting

08:02PM EDT - To clarify, the z series is IBM's mainframe product line

08:02PM EDT - So this isn't POWER8 or POWER9

08:04PM EDT - IBM's z-series has central processors and system control chips with integrated fabric and off-compute chip caches

08:05PM EDT - This is under a 'mainframe' setup, rather than a standard CPU/co-processor setup.

08:05PM EDT - Dr Christian Jacobi to the stage, Chief Architect

08:06PM EDT - z14 was technically announced a few weeks ago

08:06PM EDT - A lot of mainframes still exist

08:06PM EDT - Still used in large corporations for transactional data, e.g. credit card has a mainframe involved. 90% of airline booking systems involve mainframes

08:07PM EDT - Run large databases and large virtualised linux

08:07PM EDT - Have to make design decisions tailored for those workloads

08:07PM EDT - z10 was high frequency, z196 had OoO, z13 had SMT and now z14

08:08PM EDT - The mainframe uses two different chips - the CP (cores and shared L3) and SCP (large L4 and interconnect logic)

08:08PM EDT - Picture is a deep drawer with DRAM, PCIe, and six CP chips under cold plates and one SC (SCP)

08:08PM EDT - Two clusters of CP chips connect to the SC. Can connect four drawers together

08:09PM EDT - CP and SC are large chips, 17 layer metal in 14nm SOI

08:09PM EDT - 10 cores has private 2MB L2-i and 4MB L2-D and 128 MB shared L3

08:09PM EDT - SC chip has 672MB of L4 and coherency logic

08:10PM EDT - Up to 24 sockets int he system, 32 TB RAIM protected memory, 40 PCIe lane fanouts, 320 IO cards

08:10PM EDT - New translation and TLB design over z13, and general pipeline optimations. Changes in instruction set too

08:10PM EDT - Pauseless garbage collection for Java, single and quad vector precision for crypto

08:11PM EDT - Register to register arithmatic

08:11PM EDT - Optimizing for COBOL performance (........)

08:11PM EDT - E.g. gazillions of lines of COBOL in online booking systems

08:11PM EDT - Compression acceleration

08:11PM EDT - This is the pipeline diagram

08:12PM EDT - 5.2 GHz, super long pipeline

08:12PM EDT - 6 instruction parse and decode, CISC instruction cracking

08:12PM EDT - 4-cycle load/use

08:12PM EDT - Directory and TLB pipeline changes

08:13PM EDT - Most designs use logical indexed, absolute tagged directory

08:13PM EDT - Use of partial compare set-predict array reduces latency of data return from L1 cache - TLB and L1 directory access happen in parallel with L1 cache read

08:13PM EDT - (doesn't that sound like way-prediction?)

08:14PM EDT - Highly associative TLB is area and power inefficiency, to limit TLB L1 size

08:14PM EDT - Sorry, I misread the slide, This is how L1 cache looks today

08:14PM EDT - This new slide shows how IBM is using it in z14

08:15PM EDT - I-cache and D-cache is now logically tagged, combining TLB1 and cache directory into single structure

08:15PM EDT - Significant area and power reduction for L1 hit

08:15PM EDT - Now a super large L2 TLB

08:16PM EDT - L2 and TLB2 can be large - 2MB L2I and 4MB L2D, 6k entries TLB2 for 4KB pages

08:16PM EDT - 8 cycle L2 hit latency (that's only 1.5 ns) ...

08:17PM EDT - Now crypto

08:17PM EDT - Now redesigned for 4-7x bandwidth

08:17PM EDT - make it simple and fast enough to be able to encrypt all data

08:17PM EDT - combination of OS, firmware and hardware implementation

08:18PM EDT - Execute 2 AES in 3 cycles

08:18PM EDT - Copy up to 256B per instruction from D-cache to coprocessor

08:18PM EDT - can execute multiple AES at once, multiple engines on die

08:19PM EDT - 13.2GB/sec per core (so 132GB/s per CP, and about 1TB/s per 6-socket server)

08:19PM EDT - Use new instructions to feed crypto engine to avoid branches

08:19PM EDT - Avoid pipeline bubbles using new instructions

08:19PM EDT - Significant effort in prefetching as well

08:20PM EDT - New GCM instruction

08:20PM EDT - Algorithm that does encryption and signature authentication

08:20PM EDT - Implement use AES and GHASH engines

08:20PM EDT - the 2 engines used in concert rather than independently

08:21PM EDT - Now key protection - most CPUs work with keys in memory. CryptoExpress6S is a tamper responding PCIe crypto accelerator. Master key is in physically protected memroy on card

08:21PM EDT - 'Clear Key Cryptography'

08:22PM EDT - Root key access usually means can steal key through mem access or core dump. This method means that the key is protected by tamper protection

08:23PM EDT - Secure Key is another mode, which diverts all crypto off the CPU onto the card instead

08:23PM EDT - This way the application never sees the key, just sees the encrypted data

08:24PM EDT - Creates a key token from the data, which remains in tamper resistent memory, and when data is decrypted, key is thrown away and new key generated

08:24PM EDT - Data Compression Accelerator

08:24PM EDT - Dictionary based data compression

08:25PM EDT - Reduces bandwidth need between memroy and disks, increases efficiency, implemented as irmware and co-processor specialized hardware

08:25PM EDT - *firmware

08:25PM EDT - z14 performance at peak throughput and start up latency. Optimized compression status return to firmware

08:26PM EDT - Order-preserving compression: Allows data still be compared when compressed

08:26PM EDT - Allows compressed directory/tree structures to do comparisons between elements without decompression

08:27PM EDT - CP has 7b transistors, SC has 10b transistors

08:27PM EDT - water cooled

08:28PM EDT - of 240 CPUs in a full system, 170 can be customer configured

08:28PM EDT - +35% capacity, +10 single thread, +25% SMT2 perf over z13

08:29PM EDT - Now for Q&A

08:29PM EDT - Q: Please generate workstations. I want to swap out x86 with z14

08:29PM EDT - (at same price, insert laughs)

08:29PM EDT - Not a serious question

08:30PM EDT - Q: What power for the chips?

08:31PM EDT - A: You can get the chips to run at any power you need. Could go 400-500W on high workload. We aim around 300-350W. We don't bin - there's only one product and we stay within the drawer power

08:31PM EDT - The chips themselves are water cooled, but customers can run an aircooled system, or you can hook up datacenter water

08:32PM EDT - Q: Doesn't going over the PCI card cause extra latency

08:32PM EDT - A: Card only has the master key - the data has a key token, which doesn't need to keep going back and forth

08:32PM EDT - Q: Have you considered something like SGX?

08:33PM EDT - A: That's not an apples to apples comparison. We consider the tamper resistant element a key feature of our products.

08:34PM EDT - Q: But SGX prevents someone with a logic analyzer going in

08:34PM EDT - A: Our solution does not need recoding - our customers use older software and it is transparent

08:34PM EDT - Q: What would you do to make COBOL run faster?

08:35PM EDT - A: COBOL does a lot of time doing BCD arithmetic, but there's traditional issue queue limitations, so we use packed BCD compute to reduce that bottleneck

08:36PM EDT - Q: What did +35% capacity and +25% SMT2 mean

08:37PM EDT - A: +35% is instructions for a whole system. The +10% single thread is a large scale number for benchmarks on capacity planning. +25% SMT2 from tuning and tweaking in our implementation due to maturity

08:37PM EDT - That seems to be a wrap. This is our last live blog on Hot Chips - I'll be writing up some of these talks on my flight home tomorrow. Hope you enjoyed them :)

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  • SarahKerrigan - Wednesday, August 23, 2017 - link

    They're complementary. z is highly profitable and, from what I've heard, subsidizes Power development. Reply
  • narmermenes - Wednesday, August 23, 2017 - link

    I think the the presentation stated several times that z is a mainframe CPU to enhance IBM's mainframe business. Reply
  • FunBunny2 - Wednesday, August 23, 2017 - link

    -- spend twice to maintain them both

    may be. may be not. with the replacement of ISA on the metal with "micro-architecture" and deep decoders, only the very front ends need be different. after all, when was the last time a new ALU design happened?
    Reply
  • melgross - Wednesday, August 23, 2017 - link

    Two totally different purposes. Sometimes one thing doesn’t fit all use cases. Reply
  • Yojimbo - Wednesday, August 23, 2017 - link

    The PC business has stagnated. IBM has no intention of trying to enter it with their Power architecture. They are trying to get Power into data centers, though. Reply
  • tipoo - Wednesday, August 23, 2017 - link

    If macOS transitions to an ISA anytime soon, 99% it would be ARM. I see no reason to flip back to Power on the consumer side. Reply
  • rbanffy - Wednesday, August 23, 2017 - link

    https://www.raptorcs.com/TALOSII/ Reply
  • SunnyNW - Tuesday, August 22, 2017 - link

    Hopefully the 14nm+ that AMD has shown on its roadmaps for 2018 is the 14nm SOI that IBM is using. I would guess sizable clock gains would be number 1 benefit. Reply
  • Lord-Bryan - Wednesday, August 23, 2017 - link

    Yeah, with 17 metal layers am sure zen might reach 4.5ghz, but amd will have to spend millions to redesign masks. so not going to happen. Reply
  • MrSpadge - Wednesday, August 23, 2017 - link

    The current SOI (e.g. 22FDX) is incompatible with FinFETS. They're in two different worlds, so to say. Converting would cause a major redesign effort, completely redoing the physical layout. Reply

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