Today marks a full 10 years since the first Core 2 Duo processors, and hence Intel’s 64-bit Core microarchitecture, were made officially available at retail. These included a number of popular dual-core processor parts, including the seemingly ubiquitous E6400 and the Core 2 Extreme X6800. These were built on Intel’s 65nm process, and marked a turning point in the desktop processor ecosystem. To quote Anand in our launch review: ‘you’re looking at the most impressive piece of silicon the world has ever seen’.

Ten Year Anniversary of Core 2 Duo and Conroe

As part of this piece we will also look at some of the predictions for the future, from the latest (and possibly last) International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors report, which predicts the stalling of smaller silicon manufacturing nodes over the next 10-15 years.

The first part of this article borrows heavily from Johan’s original look into the Intel Core microarchitecture back in 2006. It’s an awesome read.

Back When I Were A Lad

For a number of our readers, the launch of Conroe was a vast change in the processing landscape. The family of Netburst, Northwood and Prescott processors, in the form of Pentium D and Pentium 4, showed that pursuing the frequency race pushed the silicon far outside its efficiency zone and left a hot, power hungry mess in its wake. It didn’t even come with a muscular V8 sound, and AMD’s Athlon 64 X2 line had taken both the performance and efficiency crown.

Core 2 Duo (left) vs Pentium D (right)

From the perspective of Intel, it had to incorporate a significant paradigm shift in the way it approached the core microarchitecture – no more long pipelines to bump up clock rates to start. The Core microarchitecture design was marketed as a blend of Pentium Pro and Pentium M techniques, as well as the Netburst architecture, however as Johan pointed out at the time, it is significantly Pentium M and it is very hard to find anything Netburst in there. It wasn’t as simple as ‘adding a few functional units or decoders on Yonah and calling it a day’, almost 80% of the architecture and circuit design had to be redone.

As part of this piece, we’re going to take another look at the original architecture improvements of the Core microarchitecture design and some of our old performance metrics from a decade ago.

27th July 2006: Core 2 Launch Day

Ten years ago, Intel launched the following five processors:

CPU Clock Speed L2 Cache
Intel Core 2 Extreme X6800 2.93GHz 4MB
Intel Core 2 Duo E6700 2.66GHz 4MB
Intel Core 2 Duo E6600 2.40GHz 4MB
Intel Core 2 Duo E6400 2.13GHz 2MB
Intel Core 2 Duo E6300 1.86GHz 2MB

The X6800 sits at the top with a higher clock speed with a higher supported FSB-to-core ration than previous Intel processors. The Core 2 processors all came from a 143mm2 die, compared the 162mm2 of Pentium D, and they both seem tiny by comparison to the large die sizes we see 2016 for things like the P100. These were chips without integrated graphics either. The introduction of Core 2 pushed the prices of the Pentium D processors down, to give this interesting table:

CPU Clock Speed L2 Cache Price
Intel Core 2 Extreme X6800 2.93GHz 4MB $999
Intel Core 2 Duo E6700 2.66GHz 4MB $530
Intel Core 2 Duo E6600 2.40GHz 4MB $316
Intel Core 2 Duo E6400 2.13GHz 2MB $224
Intel Core 2 Duo E6300 1.86GHz 2MB $183
Intel Pentium D 945 3.40GHz 2MBx2 $163
Intel Pentium D 915 2.80GHz 2MBx2 $133
Intel Pentium D 820 2.80GHz 1MBx2 $113
Intel Pentium D 805 2.66GHz 1MBx2 $93

Comparing this to recent Intel processors, and the X8600 matches the list price of the Core i7-5960X (an 8-core part), whereas the popular Core 2 Duo E6400 at $224 at the same price as the Core i5-6600.

A few years ago, I salvaged a super old computer of mine with an E6400 and took it for a spin for a pipeline piece entitled ‘Dragging Core 2 Duo into 2013’. We know that a number of users today are still using the old platform as their day to day machine, and given that it is now celebrating its 10th birthday, it is interesting that anyone wanting to play around with the old hardware can get a motherboard, memory and CPU from eBay for $50-70.

My crusty C2D Setup from 2013




Core: It’s all in the Prefetch, and More Cache Please


View All Comments

  • Nameofuser44 - Wednesday, August 3, 2016 - link

    Here I thought I was the only slow poke to not give up my C2D (4300) & ATI 5770 / 2GB ram /as a daily driver. Well here's to ten wonderful years! Reply
  • rarson - Thursday, August 4, 2016 - link

    I'm still using a Core 2 Duo E8600 in my desktop. In an Abit P-35 Pro motherboard. The damn thing just works too well to get rid of, and I love the Abit board. Reply
  • rarson - Thursday, August 4, 2016 - link

    Durr, it's the IP35 pro, P35 chipset. Reply
  • skidaddy - Friday, August 5, 2016 - link

    My 10 year old E6600 with EVGA board & EVGA/NVIDIA 295 video card is also a great space heater. CUDA on card extended utility of set up. Only limitation is no CPU video decoding limits streaming to 1440. Waiting for the Intel Kaby Lake or better on die Intel GPU to be able to handle 4K @ 60fps over HDMI not USB3(+). Reply
  • BoberFett - Friday, August 5, 2016 - link

    I'm still rocking my C2D E6500. It does the job. Reply
  • johnpombrio - Friday, August 5, 2016 - link

    The Core 2 architecture was developed in Israel by a Intel team working on mobile processors. Intel suddenly realized that they had a terrific chip on their hands and ran with it. The rest is history.
  • thomas94k - Sunday, August 7, 2016 - link

    Nice post. I learn something more challenging on distinct sites everyday. It'll always be stimulating to read content from other writers and practice a little something from their store. I’d prefer to use some with the content on my blog whether you do’t mind. Natually I’ll give you a link on your web blog. Thanks for sharing. Reply
  • FourEyedGeek - Monday, August 8, 2016 - link

    How do you think one of those first Core processors would fare if fabricated at Intels 10nm process?

    Could they lower voltage or increase performance significantly?
  • Visual - Monday, August 8, 2016 - link

    So a 10 year old chip is about half the performance of today's price equivalent. I'd have hoped today's tech to be more like 10 times better instead of just 2. Reply

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