A Faster Memory Controller

When AMD integrated a memory controller on-die, we knew that every time we saw a new AMD processor, we'd get a slightly enhanced memory controller. In Barcelona, the tweaks are significant and should provide for a tangible improvement in memory performance.

One strength of Intel's FB-DIMM architecture used in Xeon servers is that you can execute read and write requests to the AMB simultaneously. With standard DDR2 memory, you can do one or the other, and there's a penalty for switching between the two types of operations. If you have a fairly random mixture of reads and writes you can waste a lot of time switching between the two rather than performing all of your reads sequentially then switching over to writes. The K8's memory controller made some allowances for preferring reads over writes since they take less time, but in Barcelona the memory controller is far more intelligent.

Now, instead of executing writes as soon as they show up, writes are stored in a buffer and once the buffer reaches a preset threshold the controller bursts the writes sequentially. What this avoids is the costly read/write switch penalty, helping improve bandwidth efficiency and reduce latency.

The K8 core (Socket-940/939/AM2) featured a single memory controller that was 128-bits wide, but in Barcelona AMD has split up the DRAM controller into two separate 64-bit controllers. Each controller can be operated independently and thus you get some improvements in efficiency, especially when dealing with quad core implementations where the individual cores working on independent threads all have their own memory access patterns.

Barcelona's Northbridge is also set up to handle higher bandwidth than before. Deeper buffers are present, allowing for higher bandwidth utilization, and the Northbridge itself is ready for use with future memory technologies (e.g. DDR3). We'd expect one or two revisions past Barcelona will be when AMD switches memory technologies, but the new core will initially debut with DDR2 support.

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  • Amiteriver - Tuesday, March 27, 2007 - link

    Sounds groooovy
    Now lets just hope they have something good to plug it into.
    Reply
  • trisweb2 - Friday, March 16, 2007 - link

    I just want to say how refreshing it is to read an article written by Anand. He is a master of the English language; he perfectly communicates and explains every technical detail and I come away with a better understanding of whatever he's talking about.

    Thank you, Anand, for being a good writer!
    Reply
  • MrWizard6600 - Thursday, March 22, 2007 - link

    I Agree, Outstanding.

    No other site I know of gives nearly as many in depth details, and while ill admit my knowlage of some of the terms is sketchy, I got through that one with a good understanding.

    Sounds like AMD has something to fight Core 2 against.

    I do have one criticism:
    I would have loved to have heard what Intels equivilent to all of AMDs technologies would be, mind you this criticism corrects it self toward the end of the artical.
    Reply
  • stance - Monday, March 05, 2007 - link

    Remember AMD's old president and CEO Jerry Sanders with comments
    like "We will see what we see" and "More bang for your buck" I
    cannot wait to see duel socket motherboards with two four core
    Barcelona's working their magic. reminds me of Carol shelby
    when he brought the Cobra out for road test. exciting is not
    the word, jaw droping performance? Don't take Richard's Statements
    lightly
    Reply
  • lordsnow - Sunday, March 04, 2007 - link

    Does anyone have any idea how compatible the "Barcelona" CPU will be with current motherboards? When it comes out, does it need a new n-phase voltage regulator, for example?

    the reason I'm asking is, I want to upgrade and with the current state of affairs was going to go for a C2D CPU. But with these Barcelona CPU's due out I may stick with AMD - get a AM2 motherboard and cheap AM2 CPU and upgrade to the Barcelona CPU at a later date. But I have to be sure that whatever motherboard I buy now will be 100% Barcelona compatible.

    Can anyone inform us about what the situation is in this regard?
    Reply
  • coldpower27 - Sunday, March 04, 2007 - link

    Barcelona being the server variant will be compatible with the Socket F infrastructure, while Agena will be a Socket AM2+ processor compatible with exisiting Socket AM2 infrastructure.

    Reply
  • lordsnow - Sunday, March 04, 2007 - link

    Any ideas as to what kind of features a user will be missing by dropping a AM2+ "Agena" CPU into a AM2 socket? The enhanced Power Saving features, perhaps?
    Reply
  • chucky2 - Sunday, March 04, 2007 - link

    I asked above and non-AnandTech folks like you and I said it would...but no one from AnandTech themselves jumped right in to give an affirmative.

    I asked for links from AMD's own website confirming that Agena and Kuma would work in current AM2 motherboards, and no one posted back.

    Right now the AM2+ CPU's will work in current AM2 boards rumor is just that, a rumor...when AMD themselves confirm it, or a site such as AnandTech confirms it with AMD and reports on it, then I'll believe it.

    Until then, it's <i>probable</i> that AM2+ will work in current AM2 motherboards...if you're willing to take the risk I say go for it, else, wait until we have an official answer one way or the other.

    JMHO...

    Chuck
    Reply
  • Calin - Saturday, March 03, 2007 - link

    "Intel regained the undisputed performance crown it hadn't seen ever since the debut of AMD's Athlon 64."
    Intel in fact lost the "undisputed performance king" title during the early lifetime of the K7 architecture. The Pentium !!! was faster at some tasks and slower at others (games) than the K7. Before that, the Pentium II was better than the K6-2 (the K6-3 had better IPC than Pentium3, but was slower in MHz)
    Reply
  • coldpower27 - Sunday, March 04, 2007 - link

    Intel had the undisputed performance crown again with the Athlon XP 3200+ vs the Pentium 4 3.0C/3.2C and higher processors. Reply

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