The Instruction That Changes (almost) Everything: TRIM

TRIM is an interesting command. It lets the SSD prioritize blocks for cleaning. In the example I used before, a block is cleaned only when the drive runs out of places to write things and has to dip into its spare area. With TRIM, if you delete a file, the OS sends a TRIM command to the drive along with the associated LBAs that are no longer needed. The TRIM command tells the drive that it can schedule those blocks for cleaning and add them to the pool of replacement blocks.

A used SSD will only have its spare area to use as a scratch pad for moving data around; on most consumer drives that’s around 7%. Take a look at this graph from a study IBM did on SSD performance:


Write Amplification vs. Spare Area, courtesy of IBM Zurich Research Laboratory

Note how dramatically write amplification goes down when you increase the percentage of spare area the drive has. In order to get down to a write amplification factor of 1 our spare area needs to be somewhere in the 10 - 30% range, depending on how much of the data on our drive is static.

Remember our pool of replacement blocks? This graph actually assumes that we have multiple pools of replacement blocks. One for frequently changing data (e.g. file tables, pagefile, other random writes) and one for static data (e.g. installed applications, data). If the SSD controller only implements a single pool of replacement blocks, the spare area requirements are much higher:


Write Amplification vs. Spare Area, courtesy of IBM Zurich Research Laboratory

We’re looking at a minimum of 30% spare area for this simpler algorithm. Some models don’t even drop down to 1.0x write amplification.

But remember, today’s consumer drives only ship with roughly 6 - 7% spare area on them. That’s under the 10% minimum even from our more sophisticated controller example. By comparison, the enterprise SSDs like Intel’s X25-E ship with more spare area - in this case 20%.

What TRIM does is help give well architected controllers like that in the X25-M more spare area. Space you’re not using on the drive, space that has been TRIMed, can now be used in the pool of replacement blocks. And as IBM’s study shows, that can go a long way to improving performance depending on your workload.

Why Does My 80GB Drive Appear as 74.5GB? Understanding Spare Area Tying it All Together: SSD Performance Degradation
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  • zodiacfml - Wednesday, September 02, 2009 - link

    Very informative, answered more than anything in my mind. Hope to see this again in the future with these drive capacities around $100. Reply
  • mgrmgr - Wednesday, September 02, 2009 - link

    Any idea if the (mid-Sept release?) OCZ Colossus's internal RAID setup will handle the problem of RAID controllers not being able to pass Windows 7's TRIM command to the SSD array. I'm intent on getting a new Photoshop machine with two SSDs in Raid-0 as soon as Win7 releases, but the word here and elsewhere so far is that RAID will block the TRIM function. Reply
  • kunedog - Wednesday, September 02, 2009 - link

    All the Gen2 X-25M 80GB drives are apparently gone from Newegg . . . so they've marked up the Gen1 drives to $360 (from $230):
    http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N8...">http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N8...

    Unbelievable.
    Reply
  • gfody - Wednesday, September 02, 2009 - link

    What happened to the gen2 160gb on Newegg? For a month the ETA was 9/2 (today) and now it's as if they never had it in the first place. The product page has been removed.

    It's like Newegg are holding the gen2 drives hostage until we buy out their remaining stock of gen1 drives.
    Reply
  • iwodo - Tuesday, September 01, 2009 - link

    I think it acts as a good summary. However someone wrote last time about Intel drive handling Random Read / Write extremely poorly during Sequential Read / Write.

    Has Aanand investigate yet?

    I am hoping next Gen Intel SSD coming in Q2 10 will bring some substantial improvement.
    Reply
  • statik213 - Tuesday, September 01, 2009 - link

    Does the RAID controller propagate TRIM commands to the SSD? Or will having RAID negate TRIM? Reply
  • justaviking - Tuesday, September 01, 2009 - link

    Another great article, Anand! Thanks, and keep them coming.

    If this has already been discussed, I apologize. I'm still exhausted from reading the wonderful article, and have not read all 17 pages of comments.

    On PAGE 3, it talks about the trade-off of larger vs. smaller pages.

    I wonder if it would be feasible to make a hybrid drive, with a portion of the drive using small pages for faster performance when writing small files, and the majority of it being larger pages to keep the management of the drive reasonable.

    Any file could be written anywhere, but the controller would bias small writes to the small pages, and large writes to large files.

    Externally it would appear as a single drive, of course, but deep down in the internals, it would essentially be two drives. Each of the two portions would be tuned for maximum performance in different areas, but able to serve as backup or overflow if the other portion became full or ever got written to too many times.

    Interesting concept? Or a hair brained idea buy an ignorant amateur?
    Reply
  • CList - Tuesday, September 01, 2009 - link

    Great article, wonderful to see insightful, in depth analysis.

    I'd be curious to hear anyone's thoughts on the implications are of running virtual hard disk files on SSD's. I do a lot of work these days on virtual machines, and I'd love to get them feeling more snappy - especially on my laptop which is limited to 4GB of ram.

    For example;
    What would the constant updates of those vmdk (or "vhd") files do to the disk's lifespan?

    If the OS hosting the VM is windows 7, but the virtual machine is WinServer2003 will the TRIM command be used properly?

    Cheers,
    CList
    Reply
  • pcfxer - Tuesday, September 01, 2009 - link

    Great article!

    "It seems that building Pidgin is more CPU than IO bound.."

    Obviously, Mr. Anand doesnt' understand how compilers work ;). Compilers will always be CPU and memory bound, reduce your memory in the computer to say 256MB (or lower) and you'll see what I mean. The levels of recursion necessary to follow the production (grammars that define the language) use up memory but would rarely use the drive unless the OS had terrible resource management. :0.
    Reply
  • CMGuy - Wednesday, September 02, 2009 - link

    While I can't comment on the specifics of software compilers I know that faster disk IO makes a big difference when your performing a full build (compilation and packaging) of software.
    IDEs these days spend a lot their time reading/writing small files (thats a lot of small, random, disk IO) and a good SSD can make a huge difference to this.
    Reply

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